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ositlos in t)io Christening of 

YOUMJT X<>1>; ' 

'arjre number <>f the titled fnm- 


ury >kLit row 


'in from the vest 


of the Sey- 




JiQfMiu the lime of Henry VH. 


i the in-es- , 


i'Uui'low has 

the aaiightor . 

The G 

name . 


I'quis Of ^ 

ci'li-il i 
origin ol 

in ti 

to !l. 

.1 laird niinn \vh' - 

IE I.AV or- Tin: Mr 

ton family, wliili 

ol|ihi:i. LI. rd TV 
and -rami- 
Marlborougb. !> 

ii.Iiin. iiini 
aecual family p 

Kavly to bed and early ! 
(lay and ad, 

Many years ago, in the eleventh c, 
tury, when St. Stephen war King CK 
Hungary, there was-a baby boy >*orn on , 
a certain 4th of November. H&, vfas the f 
son of St. Stephen, who was 'known 
throughout the country a a one of the 
most pious of men. The boy was called 
Emric, and as he grew toward manhood 
he gave great promise of following in his 
father's footsteps. ' /\ 

Emric was a good and nibble prince, 

and an apostle bf^ Christianity ;*'^nd, like 

Ins father, his name bacjame known all 

over the country. ThrdugfKhis celebrity 

the name became a popular cwae, and in 

the fifteenth century it was tf&nf erred 

upon an ItaliaA boy whose surname was 

Vespucci. Th Italian form of Emric is 

Amerigo, and Amerigo, *whp did our 

New World some service by .his explora- 

f tions, and who extended the knowledge 

of the Old World people in regard to it 

i by his writings, was honoured by having 

1 our great continent named v after him. 

And so the name of our great land, 
America, can to .traced baek-.tcf-this good 
and learne<l BfciOt Emric, X no was born 

! on the 4th of November so '4 many years 
r ago, and who lived all his life without 
imagining that long after he was dead a 
great new world would be discovered 
and that it would bear his name. New 
York Sun. 







PH.DK. F.S.A. 

MeliuB eat nomen bonnrn quam divitisc multai. 

PBOV. xxii. 


All rights reserved. 



THE history of Christian names has been ably 
treated by Miss Yonge, and some useful and inter- 
esting information on the subject may be found in 
Salverte's Essai Historique et Philosophique eur 
les Noms d'Hommes, &o., in Larousse's Diction- 
naire Universel du XIX me Siecle, Camden's Bri- 
tannia, Lower's Patronymica Britannica, and in 
the columns of Notes and Queries. The object of 
the present work is to give the etymology of the 
principal Christian names either in every-day use or 
lingering in the literature of Great Britain and Ireland. 
The names derived probably amount to fifteen hundred. 
Of these the major part are without doubt from the 
Gotho-Teutonic languages, which include the Anglo- 
Saxon, Dutch, Gothic; and the High and Low 
German, ancient and modern. The next in number 
are of Oriental origin, viz. from the Hebrew, Chaldee, 
Syriac, Arabic, and Persian. Other names are derived 
from the Greek, Latin, Italian, Anglo-Norman, and 
Slavonic ; and many more from the Celtic languages 
that is to say, from the Gaelic, Irish, Welsh, and Cornish. 

A large number of authorities have been consulted ; 
and I am indebted for much useful information to the 


writings of Simonis, St. Jerome, Fuerstius, Gesenius, 
Tregelles, Kitto, Wachter, Meidinger, and the Kev. 
Alfred Jones. I cannot say I have been greatly 
edified by the perusal of many others. The unworthi- 
ness of works on this subject is caused by the fact 
that one author copies from another, and but few 
writers would seem to possess more than a superficial 
acquaintance with two or three languages. Thus it 
happens that the name Lambert is translated ' fair or 
bright lamb ; ' Gilbert, 'bright helmet; ' Adelaide, * noble 
cheer ; ' Robert, * red beard ; ' Harvey, ' bitter ; ' Wildred, 
e much fear ; ' Henry, 'rich in wisdom ; ' Susan, ' & rose ; ' 
Osmund, ' house-peace ; * Caesar, 'hairy; ' Edgar, 'happy 
honour ; ' Jane, ' a willow ; ' Frederick, ' rich in peace ; ' 
Ralph, 'help;' Adolphus, 'noble wolf; ' Godfrey, ' God- 
free; ' Louis, 'lofty ; ' Fanny, ' a white rose ; ' Humphrey, 
' house-peace, peace at home, or one who makes peace 
at home ; ' Julia, ' beguiling ; ' Wibert, ' bright or 
shining holy ; ' Selina, ' a nightingale ; ' Manfred, 
' cold hand ; ' Georgina, ' select ; ' Damaris, ' young 
cow ; ' Clementine, ' a white hart ; ' Grissel, ' stone 
heroine, or little pig ; ' Philip, ' warlike ; ' all which 
renderings, and a thousand more of the like kind, 
may be forthwith suffocated, and interred with this 

Talibus carduis pascuntur asini. 

One of the uses of a work like the present is to 
assist in the interpretation of surnames themselves, a 


great many of which are based upon Christian names. 
Salverte maintains that a moiety of family names is 
derived from baptismal appellations, at least in the 
British Islands ; and Mr. Mark Antony Lower, in his 
Patronymica Britannica, although he cannot agree 
with this statement, says it is indisputably one of the 
largest sources of these appellatives, and he adds, " This 
will be apparent if we reflect that not only has nearly 
every * font-name ' become a surname per se, but also 
in its various patronymical or rather filial forms, and 
its nicked or abbreviated modifications." 

Another purpose of the present work is to enable 
parents to find becoming names for their offspring ; or, 
at all events, to endeavour to prevent them giving 
their children inappropriate names. 

The Romans called one Naso from the size of his 
nose ; others, Cicero, from a mark like a chick-pea on 
the face; Scasvola, from being left-handed; Longi- 
manus, from the length of the arms; Seneca, from 
being born old (say, with white hair). They named 
another Plato from the breadth of shoulders; or 
Plautus, from splay feet; Galba, from smallness of 
stature; Fabius, from cultivating beans; Caligula, 
from wearing the shoe styled caliga. The .Romans 
had some sort of excuse for giving such appellations, 
because they were based on truth; but there is no 
excuse, unless it be ignorance, for christening a child 
Cecil who is not blind, or Blaise when he does 
not lisp, or before he can utter a word; and it is 


equally absurd to name one's daughter Ursula, signi- 
fying a little she-bear, or Priscilla, meaning 'somewhat 
old.' This is the more important because although 
any one may, without leave or licence, assume what- 
ever surname he pleases, and in such name may 
purchase or sell real or personal property, sue and be 
sued, be re-vaccinated, married, divorced, imprisoned, 
drowned, or buried yet, according to a decision of 
the Divorce Court, no power can legally authorise the 
alteration, omission, or adoption of an additional bap- 
tismal name. 

In addition to Christian names, I have frequently 
added pet-names and nicknames (which are liable to 
become baptismal names), for. as Napoleon remarked, 
'epithets and nicknames should never be despised ; it 
is by such names mankind are governed.' 

Jan. 1882. 


A-NoRM. Anglo-Norman. 

A.S. Anglo-Saxon. 

ANC. BRIT. Ancient British. 

ARAB. Arabic. 

CH. Chaldee. 

CONF. Conferre, compare. 

D. Dutch. 

FR. French. 

GAEL. Gaelic. 

GR. Greek. 

H. Hebrew. 

ION. Ionic. 

IR. Irish. 

IT. Italian. 

JONES, Eev. Alfred Jones. 

L. Latin. 

LXX, Septuagint. 

MED. L. Mediaeval Latin. 

M. H. G. Middle High 

N. H. G. New High Ger- 

N. Q. Notes and Queries. 

0. FR. Old French. 

O. G. Old German. 

mica Cornu-Britannica. 
PERS. Persian. 
R. H. Rotuli Hundred- 


SP. Spanish. 
SYR. Syriac. 
TREGELLES, Gesenius' 

Hebrew Lexicon, edited 

by Tregelles. 
W. Welsh. 

anc. ancient. 
dim. diminutive. 
fern, feminine, 
fig- figuratively. 
gen. genitive. 
lit. literally. 
masc. masculine. 
poet, poetically. 
pi. plural, 
q. v. quod vide, 
var. variously. 


IN treating of the etymology of the Christian names 
of Great Britain and Ireland, it may be as well to make 
some remarks on the rules which govern the etymology 
of Personal Names generally, and also on the different 
ways in which Christian Names are formed. 

1. As in the etymology of ordinary words, the vowels 
are all interchangeable: thus, the name Mary is in 
Gaelic found variously written Mairi, Moire, and Muire, 
whilst Louisa, James, Isabel, and Gregory assume the 
respective forms of Luisadh, Seumas, Iseabel, and 
Griogair. Again, the G erman name Ratprecht becomes 
in English both Robert and Rupert. 

2. Most consonants are interchangeable with other 
consonants, especially in the Celtic dialects: thus, b 
may become m andp; as James from Latin Jacobus; 
Gaelic Partolan from Bartholomew ; c sometimes 
changes to s, as Selicia for Cecilia ; g to s, as Gaelic 
Seoras for George ; h to x, as Jerome for Hieronymus. 
/may become d or s, as Janet, Jean, James, which in 
Gaelic become Deonaid, Se6naid, Sin, Seumas; k 
changes to c, as Catherine for Katherine. M may 
become / or p, as Welsh Fair (pronounced Vair) for 


Mary; Patty (perhaps through a lost Matty) for 
Martha ; Page for Padge, for Madge, from Margaret ; 
Pol for Mol, for Mai, from Mary. R is liable to 
change to d and I, as Dick for Rick, from Richard ; 
Mai from Mary; th to t, as Welsh Tewdwr from 
Theodore ; whilst w is liable to become bh, g 1 u, and v, 
as English Walter, Gaelic Bhaltair, French Gautier, 
Vautier ; English Wilhelmina ; in Gaelic Uilemhin. 

3. In some names a digamma (F) insinuates itself: 
thus, the Greek name 'Itadwyc corrupts to Evans in 
Welsh, to Giovanni in Italian, to Ivan in Russian and 

4. In the non-Celtic languages of Europe diminutives 
are formed in various ways, most generally by adding 
to the end of the name one of the vocables al, all, el, 
ell, elle, at, et, ette, at, et, ett, ot, an, anne, enne, on, 
ock, cock, key, kie, ey, ie, ly : thus, Muriel from Gaelic 
Muire, for Mary ; Harriet, Harriot, from Harry ; 
Marian, Marion, from Mary; Dickon, for Rickon, 
from Richard; Jack, for Jannock, from Jan, for John; 
Willie, Willy, Billy, from Will, Bill, for William ; 
Sukey, from Su, for Susan. It may here be noted that 
the two commonest diminutives in the French language 
are made by adding on and ot to the end of the word. 
The former, however, is, I think, only used in female 
names; but, as I have just shown, in English 
names the vocable on is found in male names also. 
In the Irish language diminutives are formed by 
adding og or 6g, in or een, can, gdn, nan, tan to the 


end of the name, as Maedhog for Mo- Aedh- 6g ; 
Finin or Fineen from Finn or Fionn ; Jackeen from 
Jack ; Finnigan from Fionn ; Adamnan, from Adam ; 
Fintan, Finan, from Finn or Fionn. In Gaelic, male 
diminutives are formed by suffixing an, and female 
diminutives by suffixing ag. Welsh diminutives are 
made by suffixing an, en, yn, ig, og. 

5. Double and even treble diminutives are found 
in some European languages. We have an example 
of a double diminutive in the English name Perronet : 
thus, Pierre, Pierron, Perronet. 

6. Some names are contracted or corrupted down 
from other names, as Silas, from Silvanus ; May, 
from Mary; Bram, from Abraham; Gustavus, from 

7. Inversions are sometimes found, as Selicia for 
Cecilia; Mailliw, a female name inverted from William. 
In German compound names such inversions are not 
uncommon, as Rambert and Bertram ; Garman, Ger- 
man and Manger. 

8. Christian names are occasionally derived from 
local names, as Barr, from Barr in Ayrshire ; Cajetan, 
from Cajeta or Cai'eta (now Gaeta) in Italy ; Cyprian, 
from Cyprus ; Jerico, from Jericho ; Lydia, originally 
from Lydia in Asia Minor; Melita, from Melita 
(Malta); Percival, from Percival in Normandy; and 
also some from river names, as Derwent and Jordan. 

9. Names have sometimes been given to children 
from having been born on the day or at the time of a 


Church festival, as Christmas, Easter, Noel, Pasco, 
Pentecost; or from having been born in a particular 
month, as Marchina and May, from the months of 
March and May ; or because born on a particular day, 
as Lundy, from French lundi. 

10. Nicknames and pet-names are often formed from 
the heads and tails of names, as Cy, from Cyrus; 
Di, from Diana; Nat, from Nathaniel; Phil, from 
Philip ; Rob, from Robert ; Sil, from Silas ; Will, from 
William ; Colin, for Nicolin, from Nicolas ; Bell, Bella, 
from Isabel, Isabella, or Arabella ; Lina, from Carolina ; 
Rita, from Margherita. 

11. A letter, and sometimes an aspirate, is oc- 
casionally prefixed to names: as Hester for Esther; 
Hector for Ector ; Nan, Nancy, from Ann; Nam, for 
Am, from Ambrose; Nol, for Ol, from Oliver; Ned, 
Ted, from Edward ; and occasionally suffixed, as Nest, 
for Nes, from Agnes. 

12. Nicknames and pet-names are sometimes formed 
by dropping both the first and the last part of a name, 
as Til, from Matilda; Ib, from Is-ab-el, or Elis-ab-eth; 
Sandy, from Alexander. 


Veteris Testamenti Concordantiae Hebraicse et Chaldaicas 

Auctore Julio Fuerstio. Lipsise, 1840. Fo. 
Simonis (Johann.) Arcanum Forraarum Nominum Hebraese 

Linguae, &c. Halse Magdeburgicse, 1735. 8vo. 
Simonis (Johann.) Onomasticon Veteris Testamenti, &c. 

Halae Magdeburgicae, 1741. 4to. 
Jerome (Saint). Sancti Hieronymi Stridonensis Opera Om- 

nia, &c., cum notis et scholiis, variis item lectionibus, 

D. Erasmi, Roteradami, &c., ed. by A. Tribbechorius. 

11 torn. Franckf. ad Mcenum, &c. 1684. Fo. 
Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, by Samuel Pri- 

deaux Tregelles. Lond. 1846. 4to, 
Thesaurus Graecee Linguae ab Henrico Stephano, ed. by 

C. B. Hase, &c. Eight vols. Parisiis, 1831. Fo. 
A Dictionary of the Bible by Wm. Smith, LL.D. Three 

vols. Lond. 1863. 

The Proper Names of the Old Testament Scriptures ex- 
pounded and illustrated. By the Rev. Alfred Jones. 

Lond. 1856. 4to. 
Glossarium Germanicum von Johannes George Wachter 

Two vols. Lips. 1737. Fo. 
Ueber Deutsche Vornamen und Geschlechts-namen von 

Tileman Dothias Wiarda. Berl. &c. 1800. 8vo. 


Vergleichendes Etymologisches Worterbuch der Gothisch- 

teutonischen Mundarten von Heinreich Meidinger. 

Frank, am Mayn, 1833. 8vo. 
Die Personennahmen imbesondere die Familiennahraen und 

ihrer Entstehungsarten auch unter Beriicksichtigung 

der Ortsnamen von August Friedrich Pott. One vol., 

pp. 721. Leipzig, 1853. 8vo. 
Dr. W. Pape's Worterbuch der Griechischen Eigennamen ; 

Dritte Auflage, von Dr. Gustav Eduard Beuseler. 

Braunschweig, 1863-1870. 8vo. 
Camden's Remains concerning Britain. 6th impression. 

Ed. by J. Philipot and W. D. Loud. 1657. 8vo, 

containing a chapter on surnames extending over 

50 pp. Also the edition of 1870, p. 109, et seq. 
The Christian Names in General Use, with their various 

Meanings ; translated from the original into English. 

Lond. 1857. Fo. 
History of Christian Names. By Charlotte Yonge. Lond. 

1863. 8vo. 
An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian 

Names, with an Essay on their derivation and import. 

By William Arthur. N. York, 1857. 12mo. 
Essai Historique et Philosophique sur les Noms d'Hommes, 

de Peuples, et de Lieux. Par A. J. E. Baconniere 

Salverte. Two vols. Par. 1824. 8vo. 
An Universal English Dictionary. By N. Bailey. Lond. 

1751. 8vo. 
Latin Dictionary. By Dr. Adam Littleton. London, 

1735. 4to. 
A Dictionary of the Norman or Old French Language. By 

Robert Kelham. Lond. 1779. 8vo. 


An Icelandic Dictionary. By the late Richard Cleasby. 

Enlarged and completed by Gudbrand Vifusson. 

Oxford, 1869. 4to. 
Island's Landnamabok ; hoc est, Liber Originum Icelandic. 

Copenh. 1774. 

Islenzkir Annalir, sive Annales Islandici. Copenh. 1847. 
Northern Mythology. By Benjamin Thorne. Lond. 

1851. 8vo. 
The Annals of Ireland, translated from the Original Irish 

of the Four Masters. By Owen Connellan, Esq., 

with Annotations by Philip MacDermott, Esq., M.D., 

and the Translator. Dublin, 1846. 4to. 
Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 
Rotuli Hundredorum (The Hundred Rolls). 
On the Names, Surnames, and Nicknames of the Anglo- 
Saxons. By J. M. Kemble, Esq. Lond. 1846. 8vo. 
A Gaelic Dictionary. By R. A. Armstrong, A. M. Lond. 

1825. 4to. 
An Irish - English Dictionary. By Edward O'Reilly. 

Dublin, 1817. 4to. 
A Dictionary of the Welsh Language. By W. Owen 

Pughe, D.C.L., F.S.A. Second Edition. Two vols. 

Denbigh, 1832. 8vo. 
Archaeologia Cornu - Britannica, containing a grammar, 

vocabulary, together with the etymology of many 

names of places, &c. By Wm. Pryce, M.D. Sher- 

borne, 1790. 4to. 
Glossaire de la Langue Romane. Par J. B. B. Roquefort. 

Two vols. Par. 1808. 8vo. 
Supplement du Glossaire de la Langue Romane. Par 

J. B. B. Roquefort. Par. 1820. 8vo. 


Surnames. By B. Homer Dixou. For Private Distribu- 
tion. Boston, 1857. 8vo. 

Patronymica Britannica ; a Dictionary of the Family 
Names of the United Kingdom, endeavoured by 
Mark Antony Lower, M.A., F.S.A. Lond. 1860. 

English Etymologies. By William Henry Fox Talbot. 
Lond. 1847. 8vo. 

English Surnames and their place in the Teutonic Family. 
By Robert Ferguson. Lond. and N. Y. 1858. 8vo. 


ABEDNEGO. Found as a baptismal name. The Scrip- 
ture name, in H. 1:1 a *d, Abhed N'gho, which Simonis 
translates * servant of alacrity (servus alacritatis ; servus 
alacer et expeditus) ;' Tregelles, 'worshipper of Mercury ;' and 
Jones, ' servant of splendour,' i. e. of the sun, from ebhedh 
servant, and n'ghoah. 

ABEL. The Scripture name, in H. hn, Hebhel, which 
St. Jerome translates * vanity or vapour.' Gesenius renders 
the name 'breath,' and says the son of Adam was probably 
so called from the shortness of his life ; but, as Tregelles 
remarks, he had this name from his birth. 

ABRA. Found twice as a female name in the parish 
register of North Benfleet, Essex; abbreviated from Abraham, 
or derived more probably from G. a/?pa, a maid-servant, a 

ABRAHAM. The Scripture name, in H. ami, Abh- 
raham, according to some a H. Arab, compound signifying 
'father of a multitude,' from H. abh father, and Arab, raham. 
Others translate the name lofty father of a multitude,' or 
' father who shall see the people.' The nicknames are 
Bram and Abby. 

ABRAHAMINA. Found as a female name. Conf. 
N. Q. 5th S. vii. 317. Formed from Abraham. 



ABSALOM. The Scripture name, in H. DlbttttN, Ab- 
shaldm, signifying ' father of peace ;' from abh father, and 

ADA. According to some this name has been corrupted 
from Adama, feminine of Adam. Others derive it from 
the name Ead (found Bade), which is from A. S. ead t 
happy; or from the name Eadith. Littleton gives 'Eada* 
(Sax.), Auda, Ada, al. Idonea, which translates 'fit, meet, 
proper;' also 'pious, honest, rich.' 

ADAH. The Scripture name, in H. my, Adhah, sig- 
nifying 'ornament, beauty.' 

ADAM. The Scripture name, in H. OIK, Adham, sig- 
nifying 'man ;' lit. earthy, red earth ; Rudolph, however, says 
the name in Ethiopic means ' to be fair, beautiful.' Hence 
the nurse-name Addy, little Adam. 

ADAMINA. Found as a female name in the registers 
of Montrose, N.B. Conf. N. Q. 5th S. vii. 317. Formed 
from Adam. 

ADAMBH. The Gaelic form of Adam. 

ADDEMENT. Found as a male name in the parish re- 
gisters of Nottingham. A probable corruption of Edmund. 

ADELA. A female name Latinised from O. G. adel, 
nobility, noble descent or lineage (prosapia nobilis). A 
daughter of William the Conqueror was named Adela. 

ADELAIDE. From the O. G. male name Adalheid (in 
M. H. G. Adalheit, Adalhait, N. H. G. Adalheid), signi- 
fying ' a noble person ;' from edel noble, and heft. Hence 
the O. Fr. Adelais, whence Alice, and the Scottish Elsie. 

ADELINE, ADELINA. Diminutives of Adela. 

ADELIZA. Corrupted from Adelaide. 

ADOLPHUS. The same as the 0. G. name Ataulphus, 


which Wachter in one place renders * helping father,' from 
atta father, hulf help, helper ; and in another place, more 
correctly, 'helper of happiness,' from od, happiness, &c. 
But see Hidulphus, under ALPHONSO. 

ADRIAN. From the Gr. name ASptwos, so called 
from 'Afy/a (a town of Picenum, Adri, Atri), cap. of the 
Prsetutii, on the coast of the Adriatic, where the family of 
the Emperor Adrian, according to his own account, had its rise. 

JENEAS. Found as a baptismal name; not from the 
classical name, but from the Gaelic name Aonghas, t. e. Angus. 

.ZENEASINA. A female name of common occurrence 
in the Highlands of Scotland. Formed from tineas. 

AGATHA. A female name derived from Gr. ayaSoe, 
good. Hence the nickname Aggy. 

AGNES. Fiom Gr. ayvije, chaste. The pet-name is Nest. 

AILBEART. The Gaelic form of Albert. 

AILEAN. The Gaelic form of Allan. 

AILEAN. An Irish female name. Some translate it 
4 light.' If so, it may be a form of Helen ; but it is more 
probably from the Erse a*7, noble, beautiful ; or from aille, 
handsome, fair ; or corrupted from ailgean, noble offspring, 

AILPEAN. The Gaelic original of Alpin. Chalmers 
however, speaking of the names of the British kings, says 
Elpin is the British Elfin, which means the same as the 
British Elf. I derive Ailpean from Ailp-beam, the white hill. 

AILSE. Another spelling of Alice. 

AIME. A male name of French origin, signifying 
4 beloved.' 

AINDREA. A Gaelic form of Andrew. 


AINGE ALAG. The Gaelic form of Angelica. 


AINULPH. Camden derives this name from Sax. ana 
alone, ulph help ; that is, one who needs not the assistance of 

ALAN. Some derive this name from O. Fr. alan, allan, 
a hunting dog, originally from the country of the Alani or 
Alauni, a warlike people of European Sarmatia. Conf. Sp. 
Aldno, Med. L. Alanus. 

ALARIC. From the old Gothic name Alareiks, from 
all-retch, very powerful, prcepotens : Wachter. 

ALASDAIR. The Gaelic form of Alexander. 

ALBERT. The same with the O. H. G. names Albrecht, 
Ailbracht, and the N. H. G. Albrecht ; from all-brecht, very 

ALBIN. Perhaps the same as Alban, the proto-martyr of 
England. ' One from Albainn,' Gaelic for Scotland ; or from 
Albannach, a Scot, Scotchman, Scottish. 

ALBIN A, ALBINIA. Female names formed from 

ALBINUS. Found as a baptismal name. Called after 
Albinus, name of several distinguished Romans, one of whom 
was governor of Britain. 

ALBION. A Christian name found in London at the 
present day. The same as Albin. 

ALCE. Another form of Alice. 

ALE SI A. Another form of Alice. 

ALETHIA. A female name found in Yarmouth parish 
records, from Gr. aXijtaa, truth. 

ALEXANDER. From the Gr. name Atefavfyoc, helper 
of men, from aAecu, to assist, succour, a.vr t p, avspog, a,Y$po. 
Hence the nicknames Alec and Ellick, and the Scottish 


ALEXANDRINA. A female name. From Alexander. 

ALEXINA. A female name found in the registers of 
Montrose, N.B. Formed from Alexis. See ALISON. 

ALEXIS. The classical name. From aAegco, to assist, 
succour, defend another. 

ALFRED. This name is usually translated 'all peace.' 
Meidinger derives the first syllable of the Anglo-Saxon 
names Alfred, Aelfred, from the word alp, alf, elf, strong, 
powerful. The name is rather from alf-rad, help in counsel. 

ALGAE. The Saxon name (in Domesday, Algar and 
JElgar), corrupted down from the name ^Elfgar, which 
Mr. Ferguson derives from celf, an elf. But the name is 
rather from celf-gar, help in war ; or celf-ger, very helping. 
Conf. Franc, et Alam. kelfa, auxilium ; gar, jaculum, 
telum, arma ; 0. G. ger, valde, also bellum. 

ALGERNON. It struck me at once that this name was 
the O. Fr. grenon, gernon. A correspondent of N. Q. 
(5th S. x. 247) says, The name of Algernon from als 
(aux) gernons, was originally given in the twelfth century 
to those who, contrary to the fashion of the time, wore their 
whiskers. Among those so named we find Eustace II., 
Count of Boulogne (aux grenons} ; and William de Perci 
(als gernons}, who came over with the Conqueror, and 
founded the noble family which, strange to say, used it 
afterwards as a Christian name. Roquefort renders the 
0. Fr. gernon, grenon, guernon, ghernon, ' poil de la barbe, 
moustache ; ' from Med. L. granus, greno ; the latter is no 
doubt from L. crinis, hair of the head. Roman du Renard, 72. 

Et la mesenge a empoinguie 
Plain son poing de mouse et de foille ; 
N'a talent que besier le voille, 
Les grenons li commence a terdre. 


And in Fabliau de S. Pierre et du Jougleor 

Droitement en enfer entra, 
Moult estoit bien appareillez, 
Barbe ot noire, grenons trechiez, 
En enfer entre tot secrez. 

ALTANORA. Same as Elener, Ellinor, and Eleanor. 

ALICE. Corrupted down from Adeliza. 

ALICIA. A Latinisation of Alice. 

ALINA. Same as Evelyn. 

ALISIA. A form of Alice. 

ALISON. A Scottish female name, which in old parish 
registers is found spelt Alisone. It is of French origin, 
and the same as Alizon. Roquefort gives Alizon, Aileite, 
Ailexe, Aileye, Auly, as female diminutives of Alexis. 

ALISONE. An old form of Alison, q. v. 

ALLAN. Doubtless the same name as Alan. 

ALLFGRA. A female name derived from It. allegra, 
lively, merry. 

ALLEN. According to some this is the same name as 
Allan and Alan. Lower shows that it is found written 
Allayne. It is a probable corruption of the name Alwine, 
q. v. 

ALLISTER, ALISTER. Scottish forms of Alexander. 

ALLIS. The same as Alice. 

ALMA. At the time of the war with Russia several 
females in the west of England were so christened after the 
Battle of the Alma. Conf. N. Q. 4th S. ii. 293. 

ALMINA. Found as a female name, and thought to be 
the same as the gipsy name Alamina. 

ALONZO. A name derived from root of Alphonso. 

ALPHONSO. This name is usually derived from the 
Gothic helpuns (say hialp-uns), our help ; but to arrive at 


the origin of the name we must compare it with the Spanish 
names Ildefonso, Alfonso, Alonso, which all represent 
Alphonso. Now, the second has been abbreviated from 
the first, and the third from the second. The name Ildefonso 
is derived from the Old German saint-name Hildefons, or, 
as some write it, Hildefuns. The latter has been rendered 

* battle-eager.' I do not find such a word as funs or fons 
in any of the Gotho-Teutonic languages. Schulze's Gothic 
Lexicon has fon = rtup, and Verelius gives fun, fon, ignis. 
But Hildefuns has been most probably corrupted from 
the name Hildulphus (usually Hidulphus), signifying 

* noble help or helper,' from hild noble, and ulph. It was 
from St. Hidulphus that the village of Sdlfs had its name : 
hence the Stilsfer Joch, Italianised to Stelvio. 

ALPIN. Some translate this name the * highest land on 
the peak of a mountain ;' but see the Gaelic name Ailpean. 

ALVAR A. Found as a male name in the parish registers 
of Nottingham. Derived from the Sp. name Alva. See 

ALWINE. From A. S. al-win, mighty conqueror 
( * omnia bello vincens,' Lye). 

ALYS1A. A form of Alice. 

AMABEL. A female name. From L. amabilis, amiable, 
worthy to be loved, lovely. The name has been Latinised 
to Mabilia, and the Italian form is Mabella. 

AMADEUS. Some make this a Latin name, and trans- 
late it ' Love God.' It means * with God,' from Gr. apa, 
with, and 6ao?. 

AMANDA. A female name. From L. amanda, to be 
loved, i. e. worthy of being loved. It is also found as a 
male name in the parish registers of Nottingham. 


AMBROSE. From the Latin name Ambrosius ; from 
Gr. a.[j,(3po<rio$, immortal, divine, godlike. 

AMELIA. From ^Emylia, name of a noble family in 
Rome, one of whom, Consul ^Emylius or^Emilius, is said to 
have constructed the celebrated Via JEmilia ; also the name 
of a Vestal who rekindled the fire of Vesta, which had been 
extinguished by putting her veil over it. The name JEmy- 
lius is from Gr. ai ( ayAoc, gentle, engaging, courteous. 

AMEN. Found as a female name. Couf. N. Q. 5th 
S. viii. 126. It may have been corrupted from a name 
Amina ; or it may from Gr. apjv, truly, verily ; or its 
root, the H. JDN, amdn, id. ; lit. ' firm,' metaphorically 

AMIA. Latinised from Amy. 

AMICIA. Found as a baptismal female name. Latinised 
from the French name Aimee, beloved. 

AMMOROSS. Found as a male baptismal name in one 
of the parish registers of Donnybrook, near Dublin. It is 
a probable corruption of Ambrose. Conf. the Russian form 
of the latter, viz. Amvrossij. The Gr. ap^pos signifies 

AMOS. The Scripture name, in H. DDK, Amos, sig- 
nifying a * burden.' 

AMPHILLIS. Found as a Christian name in the parish 
register of Northrepps Hall, Norwich, and also in those of 
North Benfleet, Essex. From Gr. ajU^jAaAoe, loquacious. 

AMY. Some derive this name from Fr. aime'e, beloved; 
others from amie, a friend. It is found Latinised both 
Amata and Amicia. 

ANAB AL. A Gaelic form of Anabella. 

ANABELLA. A female name formed from Hannibal, 


z. e. Annibal, the Carthaginian name. In Phoenician it is 
found written h>}jn, Chanbaal, favour of Baal. 
ANABLADH. A Gaelic form of Anabella. 
ANANIAS. Found as a female name in one of the 
registers of Donnybrook, near Dublin. Ananias Men- 
dacious occurs also elsewhere as a female name. It is 
derived from the Gr. name Avaxiar, from iTJ3#, Ananiah, 
which Tregelles translates ' whom or what Jehovah covers,' 
and Jones * cloud of the Lord,' i. e, whom the Lord covers 
or guards ; from andn a cloud, and Yah. 

ANASTASIA. A female name formed from Anastasius. 

ANASTASIUS. From 'A.m<rr<riQs, name of a Greek 
emperor and of several Popes, from avao-racr<s, a rising up 
from, restoration to life, resurrection. 

ANDERSON. A Scottish name, Andrew's son. 

ANDREW. From Gr. 'Avfygaj ; from avSpetog, manly, 
brave, courageous. 

ANDROMECHA. Found as a female name in the 
parish registers of Nottingham, so called after Andromache, 
daughter of ^Etion, king of Thebes, in Cilicia, who married 
Hector, sou of Priam. In Gr. AyfyojUMtpftb fern, of the name 
signifying * fighting with men,' from avijp, 
a man, and pn^o^ou. 

ANDROW. The Cornish form of Andrew. 

ANGEL. A female name derived from Sp. angel, an 
angel, a spiritual being. 

ANGELA. A female name derived from the name 

ANGELINA. A female name of Italian origin, derived 
from angelOy an angel. 

ANGUS. The English form of Aonghas. 


ANGUSINA. A female name formed from Angus. 

ANN. Same as Anne. 

ANNA. The Gaelic form of Ann ; also an English 
name ; both derived from Hannah. 

ANNE. A name corrupted from Hannah, q. v. It is 
also found several times as a male name. It was borne by 
one of the Paulett family in the last century, for some time 
M.P. for Bridgewater ; also by Sir Frederic Anne Hervey, 
second baronet, who took the name of Bathurst. The former 
was named after his royal grandmother. Burke's Peerage 
mentions also George Augustus Anne Parkyns, the last 
Baron Rancliffe, born 1785, died 1850. There was also 
a Lord Anne Hamilton, third son of James, fourth Duke 
of Hamilton, who was named after his godmother, Queen 
Anne. Conf. N. Q. 4th S. ix. 21 ; 5th S. ii. 478. From 
Ann, Anne, we have as nicknames Nan and Nancy. 

ANNETTE. A diminutive of Anne. 

ANNIS. A name corrupted from Agnes. 

ANNISTAS. Found as a female name in one of the 
parish registers of Donnybrook, near Dublin, corrupted 
from Anastasia. 

ANSELM. A male name derived from the 0. G. name 
Anshelm, from hanse-helm, protector of society; from hanse 
society, and helm. 

ANSTACE. A female name corrupted from Anastasia. 

ANTONY, ANTHONY. From L. Antonius, Gr. 
'Avromoe. According to Littleton, the Antonian family 
were descended from Antius, son of Hercules. Hence, 
as a nickname, Tony. 

ANTY. An Irish name derived from Anastasia. 

AOIDH. A Gaelic form of Hugh. 


AONGHAS. The Gaelic form of Angus. From aon- 
ghas, noble or illustrious youth ; from aon, excellent, noble, 
illustrious ; and gas, gais, boy, also strength. 

APPHIA. There was a Baroness Lyttleton of this name, 
to whom a print of Malvern Abbey Church was inscribed. 
It may be the same as the H. name Aphiah, t. e. iT5, 
Aphiyahh (L. Aphia), which Simonis renders * anhelitus, i. e. 
one's breath, wind ; ' and the Rev. Alfred Jones, ' refreshed.' 
The Thesaurus Graeca3 Linguae (ed. by Wm. Robertson, 
1676), however, has ' 'Atfcjj/a, nomen Hebr. pistrix ; ' to 
which Mr. S. L. Y. Vere adds * Pistrix, lit. translated, is 
a female who grinds corn;' and Prof. Lightfoot says 
the name is a Phrygian term of endearment. Conf. N. Q. 
5th S. xx. 372, 373, 397. 

ARABELLA. Corrupted from the old name Orabel, 
Orabele, q. v. 

ARCHIBALD. From the 0. G. name Erchenbald, 
Erchanpald ; from erchan-bald, bold in work or activity. 
Meidinger translates erchan, 'wirken, wirksam, thatig.' 
Nickname, Archie. 

ARCHELAUS. Found as a male name. From the Gr. 
'Ap^eAaog, a name of some kings of Cappadocia ; signifying 
* the first of the people, the leader or ruler of the people ;' 
from ap^u, to be the first, and Aaog. 

ARCHIMEDES. Found as a male name. From the cele- 
brated name r Af*gtjw}#gci signifying 'chief or leader in 
counsel ; ' from a^og, chief, and w/ijog. 

ARDGAL. An old Irish name. From ard exalted, 
gal valour. Annals of Ireland. 

ARIMATH^EA. Joseph Arimathaea is found as a 
Christian name in the Times obituary of Oct. 1880. So 


called from the Scriptural Joseph of Arimathea, who was 
named from his birthplace. 

ARMENIA. Found as a female name in the parish 
registers of Nottingham. It may be derived from the 
country so called, but has more probably been formed from 
the name Arminius. See ERMINIA. 

ARNOLD. Bailey says this name in Saxon signifies 
' faithful to his honour ' (arn-liold) ; Lower says the sur- 
name Arnulfe is the same as Arnold, in mediaeval records 
sometimes Latinised Ernulphus (which might translate both 
* help in war ' and * helping lord'), but Arnold and Arnhold 
are 0. G. names, and there were an Arnould of the seventh 
century, and an Old Norsk Arnalldr ; all doubtless from 
ern-walt, powerful lord ; from er, ern, lord, and wait. 

ART, ARTAIR. Gaelic forms of Arthur. 

ARTHUR. Armstrong derives this name from Gael. 
ard, an eminent person ; lit. high, lofty, exalted, noble, 
eminent, excellent, proud ; but the name is rather from 
W. arth, a bear. Conf. Gael, art, airt, a bear ; Erse art, a 
bear ; also noble, great, generous. 

ASPASIA. Found as a female name. So called from 
'Acrrracna, priestess of the sun, famous for her personal 
charms ; or from Aspasia, who came to Athens to teach 
eloquence, and had for her pupils, not only Socrates, but 
Pericles, whose wife she afterwards became. From acnracnog, 
agreeable, pleasing, welcome. 

ASSY. A baptismal name corrupted from Alice. 

ASTYANAX. A correspondent of N. Q. (5th S. x. 
196) says he knew a young man who rejoiced in the name 
of Astyanax. His father commanded the good ship Andro- 
mache, on which the son was born, and so the latter 


not inappropriately became Astyanax, the son of Andro- 
mache. The name, which in Gr. is written 'A<rruaya, 
signifies lord of the city ; from acrry a city, and ava. 

ATHELSTAN. A name of Saxon origin, signifying 
* noble stone,' i. e. noble protection. 

ATHOL. A male name derived from Athol, in Scotland. 

AUBERON. A French name. A diminutive of Auber, 
from Aubert. See AUBERTIN. 

AUBERTIN. A French diminutive of Aubert, a name 
derived from Albert or Albrecht. 


AUDREY or AUDR1E. A female name corrupted 
from Etheldreda, q. v. 

AUGUST. An abbreviation of Augustus. 

AUGUSTA. The female form of Augustus. 

AUGUSTIN. From the Latin name Augustinus, 
diminutive of Augustus. 

AUGUSTUS. The Latin name, signifying < venerable, 

AUIS. Same as Avice. 

AUNA. A correspondent of N. Q. says this female 
name is thought to be the same as Aine (pronounced nearly 
awna), still given, or given till very recently, by Irish- 
speaking people to female children in the south and west 
of Ireland, and which he thinks is connected with the old 
Irish moon-goddess, commonly Anglicised to Anna or Anne. 
Another correspondent of same journal says the name Auna 
as a Christian name is found printed upon a label in a volume 
of music of the beginning of the present century. This is 
curious, because the Erse word aine signifies ' music, melody, 


AURELTA. A female name derived from Aurelia, 
mother of Cassar, formed from Aurelius, name of a Roman 

AURORA. A female name, from L. aurora, the dawn. 

AUSTIAN. A corruption of Austin. 

AUSTIN. Corrupted down from Augustin, q. v. 

AUSTINE. Same as Austin, or a female name formed 

AVELINA. Same as Evelyn. 

derived from Everilda, from Eberhilda, q. v. 


AWST. A provincial corruption of Augustus. 


BALDWIN. The 0. G. name, which Wachter translates 

* powerful warrior.' 

BALSIR. A Christian name in a Chatterton family. 
Balser is an English, and Balzer is a French surname. 
Keith Johnston gives Balsar's Hill, Cambridge, England ; 
and there is a place called Balsar or Bulsar in Bombay 
Presidency, India. But I take it that the name Balsir has, 
like the Spanish, Italian, and French name Balthasar, been 
corrupted down through the Latin Baltassar, or the Greek 
BaAraVa^, from Belshazzar, the Assyrio-Babylonic name of 
Daniel at the court of Nebuchadnezzar. The H. form of 
the name isiyHttftota, Belteshazzar, which Tregelles translates 

* Bel's prince,' i. e. prince whom Bel favours ; from Bel 


tsha, the Zendic genitive termination, and zar = sar, prince ; 
the root, by the bye, of the name Caesar. Conf. the Swiss 
name Balz and the diminutive Balzel, derived from the 
same name. 


BANCHO. The Gaelic original of Banquo. Some 
translate this name ' white ' (Gaelic ban, white, also pale, fair, 
fair-haired) ; but it is rather from ban-cu, the white dog ; 
figuratively white hero. In Irish, CM, among other meanings, 
is a dog, greyhound, champion, hero, warrior. 

BANQUO. Chalmers thinks this name a mere invention, 
and not of Gaelic origin. But see the Gaelic name 

BAPTIST. From Gr. Bawncmjc, a title of St. John, 
from fiaitTitw, to dip, immerse. 

BAPTIZE. Found as a female name in one of the 
parish registers of Donnybrook, near Dublin. From root 
of Baptist, q. v. 

BARBARA. A Latin female name signifying one of 
another country. The nickname is Bab. 

BARDOLPH. From the O. G. name Bertulph, from 
bert-ulph, renowned for help. 

BARNABAS. From the Greek name /?apa/3ag, from 
H JTfcOJ -O, Bar Nebah, which some translate * son of exhor- 
tation ' or ' son of consolation.* It rather means ' son of 
prophecy,' from bar-nebuah. The nickname is Barnaby. 

BARNARD. An English form of Bernard. 

BARR. A male baptismal name. It is no doubt usually 
derived from Barr, a parish co. Ayr, Scotland. Barr is 
also a surname, and a Staffordshire local name. 

BARTHOLOMEW. From the Greek name /Sa^OoAo- 
fx,a?o;, from the H. 'obn *D Bartolomai, which according 


to some means 'son of Ptolemy,' but it translates rather 
' son (in) of Tolmai ;' perhaps another spelling of Talmai, 
father-in-law of David. The nickname is Bat. 

BARUCH. Found as a baptismal name in the register 
of Sparsholt, Berks, prior to 1650. The Scripture name 
71*1:1, Bariik (in LXX fiapoix, in Josephus POL^OV^O;), 
signifying 'blessed.' 

BARZILLAI. The Scripture name, in H. bni, Barzillay, 
signifying ' of iron,' from barzel, iron. The Rev. A. Jones 
renders it figuratively ' most firm and true.' 

BASIL. From the Gr. name /3a<nAjoe, or /SacnAiog, 
from /3a<nAUc, a king. 

BAT HI A. Found as a male as well as a female name ; 
same as Bithia. 

BATHSEBA. A female name found in the Yarmouth 
Parish records. The Scripture name jnttf m, Bath-sheba, 
signifying daughter of an oath. 

BEARNARD. The Gaelic form of Bernard. 

BEATRICE, BEATRIX. Female names formed from 
L. beatus, blessed, happy. 


BEITIDH. The Gaelic form of Betsy. 

BEITIRIS. The Gaelic form of Beatrice. 

BELINDA. A female name. It may be from It. Bella 
Linda ; or corrupted from bellino, a diminutive of bello, 

BELLA. Perhaps sometimes abbreviated from Isabella ; 
at other times from Arabella 

BENDIGO. Found as a male baptismal name. Etymo- 
logically the same as Benedict. See BENNET. 



BENIGN A. A female name. From L. benignus, 
courteous, favourable, frank and free, goodnatured, debon- 

BENJAMIN. The Scripture name, in H. pott, Binyam- 
iyn, which according to the Samaritan Pentateuch means 
* son of days,' i. e. son of old age. Fuerstius translates it 
' gliicksohn,' lucky son. The name means lit. 'son of the 
right hand;' figuratively, 'son of good fortune' (ben-yamiyii). 
Conf. the name Felix. The nickname is Ben. 

BENJIE. A Scottish name derived from Benjamin. 

BENNET. A male baptismal name. From the Latin 
name Benedictus, blessed. 

BENNETT. This occurs frequently as a female name 
in the registers of Cheriton, Kent. It is sometimes varied 
to Bennetta and Benett. From Bennet, q. v. 

BERIAH. The Scripture name, in H. m^D, B'riyah, 
which Simonis translates ' in calamitate,' i. e. born in cala- 
mity; Jones, 'a calamity in his house;' and Tregelles, 'gift.' 

BERNAL. A Spanish form of Bernard. Conf. the 
Portuguese and Italian name Bernaldo. 

BERNARD. From the Old German name Bernhard ; 
from bern-hartj a strong man. 

BERTHA. From the Old German name Berta ; from 
bert, brecht, bret, bright, illustrious. 

BERTIE. There is a tradition that at the time of the 
Saxon invasion the Bertie family came from Bertiland, in 
Prussia, to Bertiestad (now Berstead), in Kent (see Lower) ; 
but the Christian name is doubtless an abbreviation of 

BERTRAM. The Old German name ; from brecht-ram, 
renowned for strength. Conf. the inverse, Rambert. 



BESSIE. Found as a baptismal name, corrupted from 

BETHEA, BETHIA. Different forms of Bithia, q. v. 

BETHUEL. Found as a male baptismal name in the 
Yarmouth parish records. The Scripture name, in H. bfcflrQ, 
B'thuel, which has been variously translated 'virgin of 
God, separated of God, separation of God,' i. e. conse- 
crated to God. Tregelles, perhaps more reasonably, makes 
it to be for bmnn, M'thuel, which he renders ' man of God ' 

BEVIS, BEAVIS. Camden derives Beavis from the 
old name Bellovesus, which he translates ' pulcher aspectus ' 
(beautiful countenance) ; but Bellovesus is more probably 
from the Celtic lei gwas, youthful warrior. 

BEZABEEL. Found as a male name in the Yarmouth 
parish records, corrupted from the Scripture name Bezaleel, 
in H. bbvi, B'tsal'el, signifying 'in the shadow* t. e. in or 
under the protection or guidance of God (tsel-El). 

BITHIA. Found as a female name. It is not uncommon 
in S. Buckinghamshire, and at one time was often found in 
the south-western counties of Scotland. It is the Scripture 
name rTTQ, Bithiah (in the LXX Berflla, in the Vulgate 
Bethia ; in the Authorised Version of 1622, Lond. Norton, 
and Bell, Bithia). The name is from bath-Yah, daughter 
of Jehovah. 

BLAISE. In France the name of the saint is found 
written both Blaise and Blais (in the diocese of OleronBlau, 
and in Germany Blaes). In Latin it occurs as Blasius and 
Blavius. It seems to be the same with the Roman name 
Blaesus, which Statius renders lisper (from blcesus, lisping, 
speaking inarticulately, stammering, stuttering). 


BLANCHE. A French name signifying white. 

BLEDDYN. A Welsh name derived from bleiddyn, a 
wolfs cub. 

BOADICEA. Found as a female baptismal name. 
Derived from Boadicea (in Lempriere, Boudicea ; in Dion 
Cassius, Bouvou7>ca), Queen of the Iceni, in Britain, who 
upon being insulted by the Romans rebelled, and when 
conquered poisoned herself. The name is no doubt of 
Celtic origin, viz. from the Anc. Brit, byn-dyg, woman 
leader (in Gael, bean-diucha). The Welsh boneddig signifies 

* of genteel descent ;' and boneddiges, lady. 

BOAZ. The Scripture name, in H. un, Boaz. Tregelles 
renders it ' fleetness,' from an unused root derived from an 
Arabic verb signifying to be nimble, fleet. St. Jerome 
translates Boaz 'in strength,;' and Simonis 'strength in 
Him,' i. e. in the Lord. 

BONIFACE. From the Latin Bonifacius, a name of 
several Popes. Some derive it a bond facie. It is rather 
from benefacio, to do good. 

BOUNIFAS. An Anglo-Norman form of Boniface. 

BRIAN, BRIANT. Male baptismal names derived 
from the Irish name Brian, which has been rendered 

warrior of great strength ' (bri-ari). According to some it 
has been sometimes Anglicised to Bernard. 

BRIDGET. Mr. Arthur derives this female name from 
Gaelic brighid, fiery dart, and he says the Gaelic word 
signifies also a hostage ; Armstrong renders brighide ' a 
hostage.' The name is found written Brighid, Brigida 
Brigide, Brtgitta, Brigitte, Bride ; and (in Menage) Birgitta 
and Britta. It probably means strength or defence, from 
A. S. burh, a place of defence, whether strong by nature or 


fortified by art (beorgan, to defend, keep 'safe, fortify, 

BRUSH. A baptismal name corrupted from Ambrose. 

BRYAN. Same as Brian, q. v. 


CADELL. A Welsh name signifying a defence, i. e. in 
battle (cad). 

used in Wales. It translates * war-chief (cad battle, gwa- 

Cynan a Chadwaladr, cadr yn lluydd ; 
Edmycawr hyd frawd. 

[Cynan and Cadwaladr, mighty in arms, 
Will be celebrated until judgment.] 


CADWALLADER. The English form of the Welsh 
name Cadwaladyr. 

CAESAR. Some translate this name 'hairy;' Schlegelsays 
from Sanscrit ktsa, hair (the hair of the head). These deri- 
vations were probably suggested by Festus, who derives it 
from ccesaries, cum qua e matris ventre prodierit. Pliny 
(7, 9) says the first who bore the name was so called quod 
cceso mortuae matris utero natus fuit. According to others 
the first of the name slew an elephant, which according to 
Servius (ad -ZEn. i. 290) is called in Punic ccesa. But there 
is no such word in that language. Lempriere thinks Pliny's 
derivation the best. The name is, however, of Oriental 
origin. It comes from the Persian -,, sar y head, highest, 
greatest, chief (H. Ittf, sar, leader, commander, prince). 


CAILEAN. The Gaelic form of Colin. 

CAIONTEAN. A Gaelic form of Quentin. 

CAIRISTINE. A Gaelic form of the female name 

CAITIR, CAITRINE. Gaelic forms of Catharine. 

CAJETAN. One born at or named from Cajeta or 
Caieta (now Gaeta), in Italy. 

CALEB. The Scripture name, in H. sb, Katebh, from 
kelebh, a dog. 

CALUM. For Gille Calum, servant of Columba. Conf. 

CALLTOPEA. Found as a female name. Conf. N. Q. 
3rd S. vi. 18. Derived from Calliope, one of the Muses, 
daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, who presided over 
eloquence and heroic poetry. KaAAjoVij signifies one who 
has a beautiful voice (from xaAog and o^|/). 

CAM. Camden places this among names derived from 
rivers. It is more probably abbreviated from Camillus. 

CAMILLA. The feminine of Camillus. 

CAMILLUS. Some translate this name ' attendant at a 
sacrifice.' The Roman name has been corrupted from 
Kao-jouAoe, from bfcWDDp, kasmial, signifying oracle of God, 

CARACTACUS. The Latin form of the British name 

CARADOC. The English form of Caradwg. 

CARADWG. The British name. The Latin form 
of the name is said to express the ability of its first 
bearer in conducting an offensive as well as a defensive war, 
and has been derived from Gaelic caer a castle, eacht an 
exploit, and cios a tribute. O'Connor derives the name 


from cathreachtac-eiSy the head of the host in battle. It 
comes rather from W. caraddwg, abounding in love. 

CAROLINE. From Carolus, from root of Charles, q. v. 

CARRY, CARY. Female names corrupted from Caro- 

CASSANDRA. Mr. Arthur translates this name * in- 
flaming one with love.' It is the feminine of KacrcravJe?, from 
xa<rcra a harlot, avijf, avepoc, av^pog, a man. 

CASSIA. Found as a female name. Conf. N. Q. 5th S. 
vii. 126. Formed from the Roman name Cassia ; or from 
H. njwp, k'tze'ah, a bark similar to cinnamon. 

CATHARINA. An English form of Catharine. 

CATHARINE, CATHERINE. The real name of 
Catharine of Alexandria, the patron saint of girls and virgins, 
was Dorothea. St. Jerome says she had the name of 
Catharine from the Syriac kethar or kathar, a crown, 
because she wore the triple crown of martyrdom, virginity, 
and wisdom. Hence to braid St. Catharine's hair is said to 
mean to live a virgin. Longfellow, in Evangeline, says, 

Thou art too fair to be left to braid St. Catharine's tresses. 

But the proper derivation of the name is from G-r. 
pure ; and therefore the correct spelling of the name is 
Catharine or Katharine. Hence, from Catharine, as a pet- 
name Kate, and as a diminutive Kitty, also the Scottish 
Katie, and the Irish Katty. 

CATHWS. A Welsh form of Catharine. 

CATALINA. From Catalina, the Spanish form of 

CECIL. A male name derived from the Latin Cecilius 


or Caecilius, a diminutive of ccecus, blind. Cecil is also 
found as a female name. An ancestor of the Earl of 
Shrewsbury married Cecil, daughter and heiress of Charles 
Matthews, Esq., of Castley Menich ; and the name has also 
been given to daughters of that house since then. Conf. 
N. Q. 5th S. vi. 491 ; viii. 237 ; and Camden's Remains, 
" Britannia," p. 7(37. 

CECILIA. A baptismal name derived from Caecilia, a 
feminine of Caecilius (see CECIL). The nickname is Cis. 

CECILY. A female name corrupted from Cecilia. 

CEIT. A Gaelic form of Catharine. 

CHARITY. A female name which explains itself. See 

CHARLES. Corrupted from Carolus, from 0. G. Jcerl, 
strong (A. S. carl, a male, whence ecorl, a countryman, churl, 
husbandman, a man, a husband), whence the name Carlo- 
mannus, Carlman, by corruption Charlemagne. Wachter 
gives several words compounded of kerl, as karlmadr strong, 
stout, karlman strong man, valiant man, karlmenska manli- 
ness, fortitude. 

CHERUBIN. Found as a male name. Conf. N. Q. 
4th S. viii. 334. Cherubino and Cherubina, as male and 
female names, are not uncommon in Italy. Cherubin is of 
course from the H. ma cherub, pi. 0*1113 cherubim, the 
meaning of which is doubtful. According to some it is of 
Phrenicio-Shemitic origin, and signifies divine steed. Others 
say the cherubim are the same as the yfypuqee, griffins of the 
Persians, guardians of the gold-producing mountains ; from 
a Persian word signifying to take hold, to take, to hold. 

CHLOE. A female name derived from the Greek name 
signifying a green bud or germ. Chloe was an 


epithet of Ceres at Athens. The name, says Lempriere, is 
supposed to bear the same signification as Flava, so often 
applied to the goddess of corn, and from its signification 
(p^Acij, herba virens) has generally been applied to women 
possessed of beauty and simplicity. 

CHRISTABEL. Not an uncommon female name. It 
would seem to be derived from Cristobal, the Spanish form 
of Christopher. 

CHRIST AIN. Found as a female name ; a corruption of 
the name Christian. 

CHRISTIAN. A male and female name signifying a 
member of Christ. 

CHRISTINA. A female name ; probably derived from 
the Spanish name Cristina, from root of Christian. 

CHRISTMAS. Camden thinks this was originally im- 
posed as a baptismal name from the bearer thereof having 
been born on the day of the festival. In like manner in 
France, says Lower, Noel was first a Christian, afterwards a 
family name. 

CHRISTOBELLA. Found as a Christian name before 
Coleridge's Leoline and Christabel. See CHRISTABEL. 

CHRISTOFER. Another spelling of Christopher. 

CHRISTOPHER. From the Greek name Xpurrofapoc, 
signifying Christ's bearer or carrier (<psw, to bear). The 
nickname is Kit. 

CHRYSOGEN. Found as a baptismal name. Conf. 
N. Q. 4th S. x. 314. From the Roman name Chrysogonus; 
from the Greek X^ycroyovoe, a descendant of Perseus and 
son of Danae, whom Jupiter visited in a shower of gold. 
The name means * sprung from gold ; ' from %fJ<rt>c gold, and 


CICELY, CICILIA. Female names corrupted from 

CICILL. A male name corrupted from Cecil. 

CIORSDAN. A Gaelic form of Christian. 

CIPRIAN. Another form of Cyprian. 

CISSELY. An old form of Cecilia. 

CLARA. A modern form of Clare. 

CLARE. A name probably derived from St. Clare, a 
popular saint in England, a friend of St. Francis, and 
foundress of all the Poor Clares. The name occurs in many 
mediaeval calendars. It is probably derived from L. clarus, 
bright, fair. 

CLARISSA. From the French name Clarisse 
(It. Clarice), from root of Clare. 

CLAUDE. From the Roman name Claudius (KAauJjoc), 
another form of Clodius, Latinised from Clodio ; from O. G. 
laut, celebrated, distinguished, illustrious ; in the Francic, 
Into, kluto, cloto, chloto. 

CLEMENT. Like the classical name Clemens, derived 
from L. clemens, tis, mild, calm, gentle. 

CLEM EN TIN A. A female name formed from Clement. 

CLEOPATRA.. Found as a female name in the parish 
registers of Nottingham. So called from KAeoTrt&'fa, 
queen of Egypt ; also the name of many other celebrated 
women. It is derived from xAeoc, glory, renown, fame, and 
rrarfa, one's native country, a family. Dr. Pape considers 
the name equivalent to Adelberta, which he translates * die 
durch ihre Geburt oder ihren Vater glanzende.' 

CLOTILDA. From the Old German Clothildis, name 
of a queen of France, signifying distinguished and noble, or 
illustrious noble (laut-hilcT). 


COLIN. From Nicolin, a diminutive of Nicol, from 
Nicolas or Nicholas. 

COLL. From Colin. 

COLLA. The Gaelic form of Coll. 

CONALL. An old Irish name. From con-all, mighty 
warrior. See CONCHOBHAR. 

CONCHOBHAR. An Irish male name, which O'Reilly 
renders 'help, assistance.' Dr. MacDermott (Annals of 
Ireland) says of it, * Conchubhar or Conchobhar, pronounced 
con-coo-var, a frequent name of kings and chiefs, derived 
from cu or con (genitive of cu, lit. a dog) a warrior, and 
cobhair aid ; hence it signifies the helping warrior.' He 
says also it has been Anglicised to Conor, and Latinised 

CONN. An old Irish name derived from conn, wisdom 
or sense ; or from con, genitive of cu, a hound, and figura- 
tively applied to a warrior. Annals of Ireland. 

CONNOR. An Irish name which has been rendered 
* hound of slaughter,' but this is impossible. It is the same 
with Conor, corrupted down from Conchobhar. 

CONRAD. From the Old German name Cunrad, which 
Wachter translates 'quick in counsel (kun-rad]. y Others 
render the name ' gifted in counsel ' (kund-rad). 

CONSTANCE. From the Latin name Constantia, a 
feminine of Constantius, from constantia, constancy, stead- 

CORA. From Gr. xopa, a girl, damsel. 

CORMAC. An old Irish name signifying ' the son of the 
chariot ' (corl-mac). 

CORNELIA. A female name formed from Cornelius. 

CORNELIUS. The Latin name. Some translate it 


* horn.' Littleton says, ' a belli cornu.' The name in Greek 
is KopvijAtoc, which some translate ' horn of the sun.' If so, 
it must come from xepae horn, and ijXtog. Viscount Gort 
(N. Q. 4th S. x. 300) says the name Connor has been trans- 
formed into the classical name Cornelius. 

CORNET. An Irish name derived from Corne- 

COSMO. A name imported from Italy, where it became 
famous in Milan and Florence, from being borne by the 
family of the Medici (Cosmo di Medici). Miss Yonge says 
St. Ambrose discovered at Milan the bones of two persons 
whom a dream pronounced to be those of Kosmos and 
Damianos, two martyred Christians, who were of course 
placed among the patrons of Milan, and hence the name 
became famous in Italy. It appears that from Kosmos the 
Italians made Cosmo or Cosimo. The name Kosmos is 
from the Gr. xoo*|U,oe, an adorning ornament, the world ; so 
called from its regularity and beauty. 

COSPATRICK. This name, found written Gospatrick, 
in Latin Cospatricius and Gospatricius, is from comes 
Patricii, the companion of Patricius. 

CRESE. This occurs as an English Christian name, 
A. D. 1284. It would easily corrupt from %p'c, for Christus. 
Other found written forms of Christus are %fX XP >Q > 
%?']"'' %- - Conf. Gentleman's Mag. for March 1842 ; also 
Waltherus, Lex. Diplomat. 

CRIMEA. A male baptismal name given to a gipsy 
encamped near to co. Huntingdon, because born at the time 
of the Crimean war. One of his sisters was named Madonna, 
which she pronounced Ma-doan-na. Cuthbert Bede, N. Q. 
4th S. ii. 464. 


CRISPIAN. From the Latin name Crispianus, formed 
from root of Crispin. 

CRISPIN. A name derived from the Roman Crispinus, 
and mentioned by Juvenal, i., 26 ; another by Horace, 
Sat. i. 1. Formed from the name Crispus, signifying curled 
( crispis capillis], 

CRISTIAN. Another form of Christian. 

CUCHONNACHT. An old Irish name signifying the 
warrior of Connaught,' from CM, a dog, figuratively a war- 
rior, and Connacht. According to the Annals of Ireland it 
has sometimes been Anglicised to Conn and Constantino. 

CUDDY. A Scotch pet-name of Cuthbert. 

CUILLEAN From Gael, cuilean, a whelp, puppy, cub. 

CUINTEAN. A Gaelic form of Quintin. 

CULLEN. A name derived from the Irish Cullen 
(sometimes corrupted to Collins), i. e. Cuillean or O'Cuil- 
lean, signifying whelp (cutullus). Couf. Ulster Journal of 
Archaeology, No. 2. 

CU-ULLADH. An old Irish name signifying * warrior 
of Ulladh,' i. e. Ulster. 

CUSTANCE. An Anglo-Norman, form of Constance. 

CUSTEFRE. An Anglo-Norman form of Christopher. 

CUTHBERT. From A. S. cuth-bert, known, famous. 

CYNTHIA. Found as a female name in the parish 
registers of Northampton. From Cynthia, a name of Diana ; 
so called from Mount Cynthus, where she was born. 

CYPRIAN. From the Latin name Cyprianus, so called 
from having been born in Cyprus. 

CYRIL, CYRILL. From the Latin name Cyrillus, a 
diminutive of Cyrus, q. v. 

CYRUS. Found as an English Christian name. From 


the Greek name Kopog (H. tiPTD Koresh), from the Persian 
^ Mr, .y& Mr, the sun (in Zend, khdro, huro, ahuro). 
According to others it has the same signification as Carshena, 
Esther i. 14 ; i. e. illustrious, from the Persian ,> lux. 
The nickname is Cy. 


DAFYDD (=DAVYDD). A Welsh form of David. 

DAIBHID, DAIDH. Gaelic forms of David, perhaps 
through the Greek AauJiJ. 

DAISY. A female name derived from the flower, whose 
name in Anglo-Saxon signifies * day's eye.' 

DALILAH. Another spelling of Delilah. 

DAMER. This name has been rendered ' Dane's joy,' but 
it is rather corrupted, through the Danish name Dagmar, 
from the Old German name Tagamar, Theganmar, which 
Wachter translates * celebrated soldier,' from degen a sword, 
and mar. Meidinger renders tag * glanz, ruhm ; ' and mar, 
1 mehrer, beriihmter, machtiger.' 

DAMARIS. A female name derived from that of a 
woman mentioned in Acts xvii. 34, Gr. Aapxf is ; from 
fotpzp, a wife, one brought under the yoke. 

DAMSEL. Found as a female name in the obituary 
notices in the Stamford Mercury. Conf. N. Q. 5th S. viii. 
66. It is from Fr. demoiselle, young lady. 

DANDIE. A Scottish form of Andrew. 

DANENA. Found as a Christian name in the Guardian 
of Jan. 13, 1881. The origin of the name is doubtful; it 
may have been formed from Dan, for Daniel. 


DANIEL. The Scripture name, in H. bwrr, Daniyyel, 
which has been variously translated 'judge of God,' 'God's 
judge,' one who delivers judgment in the name of the Lord; 
from dan-El. Hence as a nickname Dan. According to 
a note in the Annals of Ireland it would seem that the 
Irish name Domhnall (pronounced Don-all), whence O'Don- 
nell, has sometimes been Anglicised to Daniel. 

DANIS. An Anglo-Norman form of Dennis. 

DAVID. The Scripture name, in H. TH, Daviydh, sig- 
nifying beloved (dilectus). 

DAVIDINA. Found as a female name in the registers 
of Montrose, N.B. Formed from David. 

DAVYDH. A Cornish form of David. 

DAPHNE. Found as a female name. So called after 
Daphne, a daughter of the river Peneus, or of the Ladon, 
by the goddess Terra. Apollo, being enamoured of her, pur- 
sued her, and Daphne, afraid of being caught, entreated the 
aid of the gods, who changed her into a laurel (Gr. Ja^vij, 
the laurel or bay-tree). 

female name signifying ' purely fair daughter ' ( dear daugh- 
ter, and for-geat). 

DEBORAH. A Scripture name, in H. rTYOI, D'bhorah, 
which St. Jerome translates ' apis, sive eloquentia,' i. e. a bee, 
or eloquence. Jones, who derives the noun from the root 
dabhdr, to speak, adds, ' And applicable to the bee, both from 
the idea of its humming, as if of eloquence, and setting in 
order, which is so observable among a swarm of bees, and 
in their hive.' 

DECIMA. A female name derived either from the 
Roman name Decimus or from the modern name Decimus. 


DECIMUS. Derived from the Roman name, or its root 
decimus, the tenth, i. e. the tenth in order of birth. 

DELCE. A female name found in South Wilts. Some 
think it may mean delight or plaything ; others derive it 
from Dulce, for Dulcibella. See DOUSABEL and DULSABELL. 

DELILAH. A Scripture name, in H. nM1, D'liylah, 
signifying weak, delicate. 

DELIVERANCE. Found as a baptismal name in one 
of the parish registers of Donny brook, near Dublin. Conf. 
the H. male name Pelet, signifying liberation or deliverance, 
and Palti, deliverance of the Lord. 

DENIS or DENNIS. Corrupted from the name Dio- 
nysius, q. v. According to the Annals of Ireland the old 
Irish name Donnoch or Donnchu has been sometimes 
Anglicised to Denis. 

DE6NAID. A Gaelic form of Janet. 

DE6RAS, DEORSA. Gaelic forms of George. 

DERMUD. The English form of Diarmad. 

DERRICK. A name corrupted from Theodoric. 

DERWENT. Found as a baptismal name, so called 
from one of the rivers Derwent in Cumberland, Derbyshire, 
and Yorkshire. 

DEWY. A Cornish form of David. 

DI. A baptismal female name derived from Diana. 

DIANA. A frequent name of women. So called after 
Diana, goddess of hunting. Some derive her name from 
dia, i. e. dea, and lana ; according to Varro, the same as 
Luna (the moon). Vossius says it is contracted from dea 
lana; Nigidius, from lana, prefixed by D. Hence as a 
nickname Di. 

DIARMAD. The Gaelic form of Diarmaid, q. v. 


DIARMAID or DIARMUID. An old Irish name. 
O'Brien derives it from dia a god, armaid, gen. pi. of arm, 
arms, the name thus signifying a god of arms, an epithet, as 
applied to a warrior, equivalent to that of one of Homer's 
heroes, Dios Krateros Diomedes, or the godlike-fighting 
Diomede. Conf. Annals of Ireland. 

DICKON. A diminutive of Dick, a nickname of 

DINA. The Scripture name, in Gr. Ae<va, in H. run, 
Diynah, signifying judged ; that is, acquitted, vindicated. 

DIONYSIUS. The Latin name, from Gr. A/ovtJo-Off, 
Bacchus, god of wine ; according to some from A<g of 
Jove, vucrcrcy to strike, because, being born with horns, he 
struck Jupiter at his birth ; others say from AIOQ vouc, mind 
of Jove. 


DOLORES. Found as an English female name, derived 
from the Spanish name Dolores, signifying 'sorrows,' in 
allusion to the Seven Sorrows of Mary. 

DOMINIC. From dominicus, of or belonging to a lord 
or master. It might also translate ' little lord.' 

DOMHNULL, DOMNALL. Same as Donull. 

DONALD. An English form of Donull, q. v. 

DONNOCH orDONNCHU (pronounced Donogh). The 
same as Donnach. See DONNCHA. 

DONNCHA, DONNACH. The Gaelic original of 
Duncan, from donn-cu, the brown-haired dog, figuratively 
brown-haired warrior. 

DONNELL. An English form of Donull. 

DONULL. According to some a diminutive of L. domi- 


nus, a lord, but this is not probable. Some derive it from 
Gael, dom-huil (say dom-suil), brown-eyed. The name in 
Irish is found written Domhuail and Domhuall. The Irish 
domhail is bulky ; the Gaelic domhail, thick, clumsy, large, 
bulky in person. 

DORA. A female name abbreviated from Theodora. 

DORCAS. From the Greek name Anopae, signifying 
a wild goat, antelope, gazelle. See TABITHA. 

DONSILLA. Found as a female baptismal name. Conf. 
N. Q. 4th S. xii. 500. Some derive it from It. donzella, 
young lady (Sp. doncilla) ; also a virgin, maid. 

DOROTHY. From the name Dorothea, signifying * the 
gift of God' (Swgov and 0eou). Hence, as a nickname, Doll 
and Dolly. 

DORSET. A female name said to have been corrupted 
from Theodosia. 

DOUGALL. An English form of Dughall. 

DOUGLAS. From Gaelic dubh-ghlas, dark grey. 

DOUSABEL. A female name, said to be derived from 
Fr. douce et belle, sweet and fair. 

DOUSIE. From Dousabel, 

DOWSABEL. Same as Dousabel. 

DREW. Some derive this name from the ancient per- 
sonal name Drogo. It is no doubt sometimes from the 0. Fr. 
dru, drud, drue, which Roquefort renders var. epais, fort, 
robuste, gai, gaillard, forme, nubile ; ami, amant, favori, 
galant, amoureux, eleve, serviteur, fidele ami, compagnon ; 
en bas Lat. drudus, en bas Bret, dreau, dreu, drew, drud. 
At other times it is doubtless an abbreviation of Andrew. 

DRUMAD. A Gaelic name of local origin, viz. from 
Drymen, co. Stirling, from druim monadh, back of the hill. 



DRUMMOND. The English form of the Gaelic name 
Drum ad. 

DRUSILLA. A female name derived from the Gr. 
name A^cViAAa, which Bailey translates * dewy eyes/ The 
word f ocroe signifies dew, moisture, pure water ; and, figura- 
tively, what is tender, delicate, young. 

DUBHDEASA or DUDEASA. An old Irish female 
name, signifying * a dark-haired beauty ' (dubh, and deas 

DUGALD. An English form of Diighall. 

DUG HALL. The Gaelic name. From dubh-gall, which 
Armstrong renders ' a Lowland Scot, a real Lowlander ; 
in contempt, a sneaking mean-spirited fellow ; also an 
Englishman, a foreigner ; written also Du'ghall.' Dr. Mac- 
"Oermott says ' The ancient Irish called a colony of Norwe- 
gians that settled in Ireland in the tenth century Fionn- 
Ghaill, signifying the Fair-haired Foreigners; and a Danish 
colony that settled there were called Dubh-Ghaill, signifying 
Dark-haired Strangers.' 

DULCE. A female name which some derive from 
L. dulcis, sweet, pleasant ; also gentle. Others say it is the 
same as Dousie, q. v. 

DULSABELL. Found as a female baptismal name prior 
to 1650. Doubtless the same as Dousabel. 

DUNCAN. A Scottish surname. Some render it 
' powerful chieftain.' It is rather the English form of 
Donncha, q. v. 

DUN STAN. Some derive this name from a locality 
signifying ' the stone hill ' or ' the strong fortress ' (dun-stan), 
but the Saxon compound is no doubt used figuratively. 

DZHtjAN, DZHUAN. Cornish forms of John. 



EACHANN. The Gaelic form of Hector. 

EACHMARCACH. An old Irish name derived from 
each a steed, marcach a rider. Annals of Ireland. 

EACHMILIDH. An old Irish name derived from each 
a steed, milidh a knight. Annals of Ireland. 

EANRAIC, EANRUTG. Gaelic forms of Henry. 

EALASAID. The Gaelic form of Elizabeth. 

EAMHAIR. The Gaelic form of Vere, q. v. 

EAST. A Cornish form of the name Just. 

EASTER. Found as a female name for two or three 
generations in the registers of Stretton, co. Rutland, perhaps 
born at the Christian festival so named. 
EBENEZER. The Scripture name, in H. *IUM:IM, Ebhen- 
ezer, signifying ' stone of help ' (name of the stone which 
Samuel set up between Mispeh and Shen, in witness of 
the Divine assistance obtained against the Philistines). 
In the LXX it is rendered A<0oe ?ov fiorfiov, stone of the 

EBERHILDA. Found as a female baptismal name ; 
formed from the Old German name Eberhild, eber-hild y noble 
boar, figuratively noble man. 

EDEE. A female name ; perhaps the same as Edith, q. v. 

EDAN. A Scotch female name, which according to 
some means 'fire:' if so, it must be from the Gael, teint, a 
fire, flame. 

EDEN. Found as a baptismal name. Either from the 
Scripture local name or corrupted from the Scotch name 


EDGAR. From the A. S. name Eadgar. Wachter 
derives it from ead-gar, author of happiness. 

EDITH. Formerly Eadith ; from A. S. eadig, happy, 

EDME. A name probably corrupted from Edmund. 

EDMUND. From A. S. ead-mund, guardian or defender 
of happiness. 

EDOVART, EDVALT. Anglo-Norman forms of Ed- 

EDWARD. From A. S. ead-weard, guardian of happiness. 
Hence as nicknames Ned, Neddy, Ted, Teddy. 

EDWARS. An Anglo-Norman form of Edward. 

EDWIN. From the A. S. name Eadwin, from ead-winn, 
happy conqueror (felix in bello, Lye). 

EFFIE. A Scottish corruption of Euphemia, q. v. 

EGBERT. Ferguson translates this name * edge-bright.! 
It rather means ' distinguished in battle,' from A. S. ecg, 
O. N. egg, an edge, sword, war, battle. Conf. the O. G. name 

EIDEARD. A Gaelic form of Edward. 

EIGNEACH. An old Irish name, perhaps meaning 'a 
plundering chief,' from eigean force, neach a person. Annals 
of Ireland. 

EILIDH. The Gaelic form of Helen. 

ELEANOR. The same name as Eleanora, in German 
Eleonore, Italian Leonora, English Helena ; and derived 
from Helen, q. v. 

ELEC. The Cornish form of Alexander. 

ELENER. Same as Eleanor. 

ELGAR. Another form of Algar. 

ELIAS. From 'HA/as, the Greek form of Elijah. 


ELIENORA. Same as Eleanor. 

ELIHU. A name derived from * EA/ou, Greek form of 
the Scripture name lirb, Eliyhu, which Simonis translates 
'cuiDews est ille\ ' but Jones more correctly, 'God the Lord 
(El, and Thov for Thovahy 

ELIJAH. The Scripture name, in H. rrbtf, Eliyyah, 
which Simonis translates * robur Domini, t. e. strength of the 
Lord;' Jones, 'God-Lord (El and Yah, for Thovah).' 
Tregelles writes JT!?, Elijayah, and "iJT^N, Elijaha, 'my 
God is Jehovah.' 

ELKANAH. Found as a male name. From the Scrip- 
ture name TOp^K, Elkanah, which St. Jerome translates 
'possession of God, whom God has redeemed;' Gesenius, 
' whom God created ; ' and Tregelles, ' whom God pos- 
sessed.' The most probable derivation is that of St. 
Jerome, viz. from El God, and kan&h to possess. 

ELIZABETH. From the Gr. form 'EA*<ra/3e0, 'EAra/3er; 
from the Scripture name tf}ttpb, Eliyshebha, which St. 
Jerome translates ' oath of my God ;' Simonis, ' oath of 
God;' Tregelles, ' to whom God is the oath, who swears by 
God,' t. e. worshipper of God ; and Jones var. ' God of the 
seven, oath of my God, of God is her oath ; ' from El 
God, shebha seven ; also an oath. Hence, as nicknames, 
Lisa, Libby ; also Bess, Bet, Betty, Bessy, and Ib ; and 
the Scottish Lizzie and Bessie. 

ELISE. The French form of Eliza, q. v. 

ELIZA. Corrupted from Elisabeth. Hence from Eliza, 
as nicknames, Liz, Lizzy. 

ELLEN. Some consider this the same as Helen, and 
indeed in Spanish Helen and Ellen are both represented by 
Elena. A correspondent of N. Q. says the name Ellen has 


no possible connexion with Helen, which is older by a 
thousand years at least, and that Ellen is the feminine of 
Alain, Alan, or Allan. It may, however, be the same as 

ELLIN. Another spelling of Ellen. 

ELLINOR. Corrupted from Eleanor, q. v. 

ELM A. A female name abbreviated from Gulielma, a 
feminine formed from Gulielmus, from root of William, q. v. 

ELSHENDER. A Scottish form of Alexander. 

ELSIE. A name corrupted from Elizabeth. 

ELSPET, ELSPETH. Scottish forms of Elizabeth. 

ELSPIE. A corruption of Elspeth. 

ELSPIT, ELSPITH. Scottish forms of Elizabeth. 

ELVIRA. There are several suggestions as to the 
origin of this name, which is also found in Italian. Ac- 
cording to some it has been corrupted from the name 
Geloyra or Geluira, but there is no suggestion as to the 
origin of the latter name. Others think it another spelling 
of the Moorish name Elmira, a name said to be derived from 
emir. Miss YoDge seems to think it of Spanish origin, 
and that it might come from Elvira (the ancient Eliberis), 
the scene of a very notable synod of the Western Church ; 
but she prefers to trace it, through one of the names Alvara 
or Alberia, and the old male names Alvar, Alba, Alva (and 
of course Sp. albdr\ to the L, albus, white. 

EMANUEL. A name derived through the Gr. 'E//.avcuyjA 
from the Scripture name bNl3y, Immanuel, from im-anu-El, 
God with us ; that is, God is with us, or on our side. 

EMBLEM. Found as a female name during the present 
century. It may be a corruption of Emmeline, which is 
sometimes pronounced Emblen. 


EMERY. A name derived from the old name Amalaric 
(M". H. G. Amalarich), signifying * powerful without a 
blot,' or ' rich in chastity ' (amal-reich), Amalaric has 
also been corrupted to Alberic, whence by corruption 

EMILIE. Another spelling of Emily. 

EMELIN. A diminutive of Emily. 

EMILIUS. A name derived from the root of Amelia. 

EMILY. A name corrupted from Amelia. 

EMILYINA. A female name formed from Emily. 

EMMA. Some derive this name from G. amme, a nurse. 
It comes rather from the Latin Amata, signifying loved, 
name of the wife of King Latinus and mother of Lavinia. 
Gellius says the high-priest called the Vestal Amata when 
she was admitted to the service of the goddess. 

EMMELINE. A diminutive of Emma. 

EMMETT. Perhaps, like the surname, a diminutive of 
Emm for Emma. 

EMOTT. Same as Emmett. 

EMRYS. The Welsh form of Ambrose. 

ENAID. A Welsh female name signifying soul, life. 

ENDYMION. A very modern baptismal name. It is 
of course derived from the classical 'EvSupiajv, which some 
translate 'the creeper, or soft surprise;' Dr. Pope translates 
it * coverer or wrapper, one wrapped in sleep.' If so it comes 
from svlSuvu}, to creep in ; or ev<Jy/>u, to invest, to clothe. 
Stephanus (Lex), renders y<5uyap>e, strong, vigorous, mighty 

ENIAWN. A Welsh name. From uniawn, upright, per- 
fect, just ; lit. right, straight, direct, Jike iniawn. 

ENID. Another form of Enaid. 


ENION. Another orthography of Eniawn. 

ENNY. Found as a female name ; perhaps, like Henny, 
from Henrietta. 

ENOCH. A baptismal name common in Worcestershire, 
derived, through the Gr. 'Evo^, from the Scripture name 
"pin, Hhanokh, which Simonis renders ' initiated, dedicated 
that is, to God ; ' and St. Jerome, ' dedicated ' simply. 

ENOS. Another spelling of Angus. 

EOCHAIDH, pronounced Eochy or Eohy, an old Irish 
name signifying a horseman or knight ; from each or eoch, 
a steed. According to the Annals of Ireland it has been 
Anglicised Achy, and Latinised Eochadius, Achadius, and 

EOGAN. An old Irish name. From eoghunn, youth. 
According to the Annals of Ireland it has been Anglicised 
into Owen and Eugene ; in Latin, Eugenius. 

EOIN. In Scripture a Gaelic form of John. 

EPHAM. The same as Euphame. See EUPHAME and 


EPHRAIM. The Scripture name D^QN, Ephrayim, 
which Tregelles translates 'double-land, twin-land; ' others 
' twofold increase, very fruitful ; ' from p'riy, fruit of the 

ERASMUS. The Latin name, from Gr. sgao-pos, de- 
sirable, pleasant. 

ERIC. The same with the old Ericus, name of several 
Danish kings. Wachter says it should be written Errich, 
which he translates 'powerful in war (wer-reich).' 

ERMINIA. A female name derived from the Roman 
Herminius, a name formed from that of the Cheruscan 
chief Arminius, Latinised from Hermann, an 0. G. com- 


pound signify ing war-man, warrior (ar-mann). It seems to 
have been in use in early times in Italy, and occurs in 

ERNEST. From O. G. ernst, which Wachter renders 
' ardent and vehement desire for study.' 

ERNESTINE. A female name formed from Ernest. 

ESAU. From the Greek 'Ho-au, from the Scripture 
name Itt^, Esau, signifying hairy, covered with hair. Si- 
monis renders the name ' totus pilosus ; from Arab. Uc. 
a'thd, coma prolixa, pilis longibus fuit.' 

ESME. A name derived from Esmund, for Osmund. 

ESSIE. A female name derived from Esther or Hester. 

EST. A Cornish form of Just (Prouter Est, the priest 
of St. Just). 

ESTELLE. A French name derived from Sp. estrella, 
from L. Stella, a star. 

ESTHER. The Scripture name, from inDN, Esther 
(name of a Jewish virgin called Hadassah) ; from the Pers. 
a tlx-j sUarahf star ; also fortune, felicity. Simonis says, 
i, et qui eos sequuntur, stellam explicant ab Graec. 
et Pers. $,U**;. idque, ob egregiam formam qu& 
effulgebat ;' and Tregelles under Esther says, ' This word is 
used by the Syrians to denote the planet Venus, and we 
recognise the same Persic name in the Hebrew iTiMttfJJ 
(Ashtoreth), Gr. 'Acrra^rtj, Astarte, pr. n. of a female idol 
worshipped by the Phrenicians, sometimes also by the 
Hebrews and the Philistines. The name of Venus, and also 
of Good Fortune, was suitable enough for her, as thus chosen 
by the king.' 

ESYLLT. A Welsh name signifying fair. Pughe says 
it is the name of, several famous women. 

42 PRffiNOMINA. 

ETHEL. A female name which is said to have become 
fashionable of late years from being the name of a character 
in Thackeray's Newcomes. It is of Anglo-Saxon origin, 
and signifies ' noble.' According to some, however, it is 
occasionally abbreviated from Ethelind, and perhaps some- 
times from Ethelburga, Etheldrcda, or Ethelswitha. 

ETHELDREDA. A female name found written Ethel- 
dred, JEthelthryth. JEtheldritha, and Eteltrudis, from A. S. 
aihel treothe, noble promise. The nickname is Audrey. 

ETIIEDINDA. Found as a Christian name in the 
Guardian of Sep. 1, 1880, no doubt corrupted from the 
name Ethelind. 

ETHELIND. A female name which appears to be of 
modern origin. Miss Yonge compares it with the names 
Adelinde and Odelind, and translates it ' noble snake.' But 
the name means rather noble and mild; this is confirmed by 
Meidinger, who under lind, mild, soft, gentle, among several 
male and female names gives the female name Ethelinde. 
Conf. also the Francic name Adelind. 

ETHELRED. A male name, in A. S. found written 
Aethelred, from A. S. ethel-red, noble counsel, or noble 

ETTA. A baptismal name derived from Henrietta. 
EUGENE. A name derived from Eugenius. See 

EUGENIA. Feminine of the L. name Eugenius, 
from Gr. ewyevys, well-born, of noble birth or family. 

EUNICE. A female name derived from the Greek 
name EL'WXIJ, signifying ( happy victory.' Eunike was a 
daughter of Nereus and Doris, who caused the death of 


EUPHAME. A Scottish form of Euphemia. 

EUPHANE. A female name found in Scotland, the 
same as Euphame ; or from sv well, and at,ivw, to appear. 

EUPHEMIA. From Gr. evtpypux,, words of good omen, 
from sv good, <pr t [ju to declare. 

EUSEBIUS. The Latin name from Gr. evoyfas, pious, 

EUSTACE. From the Latin name Eustathius, from 
Gr. gucrraSijc, standing fast, firm, constant. 

EYAN. A Welsh name. Evan, or rather Evans, is 
merely another orthography of Jones, which has been 
corrupted down from the Greek original of John, q. v. 
About the year 1825, at the Hereford Assizes, a witness in 
a Welsh cause named John Jones was examined before Mr. 
Justice Allan Park. Being asked if he had always gone by 
that name, he said he had ; he was then asked whether at 
the time he lived at Carmarthen he did not go by the name 
of Evan Evans, to which he replied in the affirmative. 
This apparent discrepancy was explained to the Court by 
Mr. Taunton (afterwards Sir William Taunton, and a 
Judge of the Court of Queen's Bench), who stated that 
Evan is the Welsh name of John, and Evans that of Jones; 
and that John Jones might be called indifferently Evan 
Jones, John Evans, or Evan Evans without any real change 
of name. Conf. Lower's Patronymica Britannica, xxiii. ; 
also some curious anecdotes on the subject in his English 
Surnames, vol. i. p. 18. 

EVELYN. Found both as a male and a female name. 
Some translate it ' hazel nut.' The latter may have been 
confounded with the filbert, which probably derived the 
first part of its name from Avellano, in Campania, which 


abounded with nuces avellance. Burke derives the surname 
Evelyn from Evelyn, in Shropshire, formerly written Avelyn 
and Ivelyn ; and Evelyn was one of the Anglo-Norman 
forms of Dublin, the other two being Juelyn and Ivelyn. 
Lower, however, says the surname Evelyn is probably an 
ancient personal name, corresponding with the German 
Aveling or Abeling, the ing being patronymic. 

EVELINA, EVELINE. Female names derived from 
Evelyn, q. v. 

EVERARD. Same as the German names Eberhard, 
Eberhardt, from eber-hart, strong as a wild boar ; perhaps, 
figuratively, strong man. 

EVERILDA. Occurs often as a female name. It is 
sometimes written Everhild, and is another form of Eber- 
hilda, q. v. 

EWEN. The English form of Eogan. 

EWENS. A Scottish name derived from Egenius. 

EXUPERIUS. Found as a male name in the parish 
registers of Nottingham. Derived from L. exupero, to 
exceed, surmount, or get beyond, to surpass. 

EZBLE. Female name corrupted from Isabel. 

EXPERIENCE. Found as a female name in the Yar- 
mouth parish records. It explains itself. 

EZRA. The Scripture name, in H. iw, Ezra, signifying 


FABIAN. A name derived from the Roman Fabius, 
the first of the noble family of the Fabii, who had their 


name from faba, a bean, because some of their ancestors 
cultivated this pulse. But see Barker's Lempriere under 
Fabii,' ed. 1828. 

FAITH. A female name which explains itself. See 

FALL An Anglo-Norman form of Philip. 

FANNY. A female name corrupted from Frances. 

FARIA. The Cornish form of Maria. 

FARQUHAR. Some derive this name from Gaelic 
fear-cbir, a just, honest, or good man. Others, who write 
the name Fearciar, derive it from fear-ciar, dark-grey 
(man). It is no doubt another form of Ferchar, and the 
Irish name Ferchard, from Gael, and Ir. fearchur, a cham- 

FAUSTUS. A Latin name signifying lucky, fortunate, 
prosperous. Conf. the Latin name Felix, and the Hebrew 
name Gad, signifying fortune. 

FEARGAL. An old Irish name signifying man of 
valour (Jear-gaV). 

FEARGHAS. The Gaelic name ; from fear-ghas, a 
strong man. 

FEITHFAILGE. An old Irish female name, signifying 
a honeysuckle of ringlets (feith-failge). 

FELICIA. A female name formed from Felix. Ac- 
cording to some, Jocosa (Joyce) is out of use, and Felicia 
is now more often used instead ; but Felicia is quite as old 
a name as Jocosa. Henry le Despenser and Felicia his 
wife' occur in Rot. Pat. 29 Ed. I (13001). See N. Q. 
5th S. i. 518. 

FELIM, FELIMY. Different orthographies of Phelim. 

FELIX. The Latin name, signifying happy. Dr. Mac- 


Dermott (Annals of Ireland) says the Irish name Feidhlim 
or Feidhlimidh, pronounced Felim or Phelim, has been An- 
glicised to Felix. 

FELYPP. An Anglo-Norman form of Philip. 

FERDINAND. Meidinger, among several other names 
compounded of nand for genannt (kundig), gives a N. H.G. 
name Ferdinand. The O. G. fert is rendered facilis, facilis 
in agendo, so that fert-nand might translate figuratively 'one 
quick of comprehension,' or ' man of rare abilities.' 

FERGUS. The English form of Fearghas. 

FERRI. An Anglo-Norman form of Frederick. 

FFRANCES. A female name derived from Frances. 

FIACHA. An old Irish name signifying a hunter. 
Annals of Ireland. 


FINGAL. The English form of Fionnghal. 

FIONN. Another name for Fionnghal. See FIONN- 

FIONNAGHAL. The Gaelic name for Flora. 

FIONNGHAL. The Gaelic original of FingaL The 
name means ' white stranger,' or ' fair-haired foreigner ; ' 
fionn white, and ghaill a Scottish Lowlander, a foreigner, a 

FIONNGHUALA. An old Irish female name signifying 
from ' fair-shouldered woman,' from fionn white, guala 
shoulders. According to the Annals of Ireland it has been 
Anglicised to Penelope. 

FITZEDWARD. A baptismal name, son of Edward 
(Norman fitz, for films). 

FITZ GEFFREY. A baptismal name, son of Geffrey. 
FITZ NICHOLAS. A baptismal name, son of Nicholas. 


FLAITHBHEARTACH. Pronounced Flaherty, an old 
Irish name signifying 'a chief of noble deeds;' from flaiih 
a chief, leartach deeds. Annals of Ireland. 

FLANNA. An Irish female name signifying a red or 
rosy-complexioned woman. Annals of Ireland. 

FLAVIAN. A male name derived from the Roman 
Flavius, fromjlavus, yellow. Flaviuswas one of the names 
of the Emperor Domitian (Juv. 4, 37), and of a schoolmaster 
at Rome mentioned in Horace 

Qui macro pauper agello, 

Noluit in. Flavi ludum me mittere. 

SAT. 1, 6, 72. 

FLORA. A female name derived from Flora, goddess 
of flowers and gardens, the same as the Chloris of the 

FLORENCE. A female name. It is said to have been 
Anglicised from Finin or Fineen, an Irish name used by 
men, especially among the McCarthy Reaghs and McCarthy 
Mores. A correspondent of N. Q. says Florence is certainly 
a female name, but not until it had been for many centuries 
a male one ; and he adds, ' We have a whole line of Counts 
of Holland chiefly bearing the name of Floris, Florens, or 
Florence. The earliest instance of the use of Florence as a 
female name which I have met with is in the case of Florence, 
daughter of Hugh de Courtenay, of Devon, and Margaret 
Carmino. Her father was killed at Tewkesbury, May 14, 
1471.' Mr. Cumec O'Lynn says, 'As Finin or Fineen 
was translated Florence by the English language, it ex- 
pressed the same thing or quality which Finin did in the 
Irish. The English version was probably derived from 
Flora, the goddess of flowers ; it may also have meant 


white or fair. The name in Irish is derived from fionn, 
pale, white, fair. Finin or Fineen is a diminutive of fin. 
or fionn ; perhaps it was the pet -name." Conf. N. Q. 
4th S. viii. 334 ; ix. 21 ; x. 300, 478. 

FORTUNE. A female name derived from L. fortuna, 
id. Fortuna was the goddess of fortune, and from her hand 
were derived riches and poverty, pleasures and misfortunes, 
blessings and pains. 

FORTUNATUS. A Latin name signifying lucky, 
happy, fortunate. 


FRAING. A Gaelic form of Francis. 

FRANCE, FRANCES. Female names formed from 
Francis. Hence from Frances as a nickname Fanny ; 
perhaps at first Franny. 

FRANCIS. From the Latin name Franciscus, which 
has been rendered 'one who had visited the Franks.' Conf. 
Dufresne, under ' Franciscus.' 

FRANCK. Found as a baptismal name, and derived 
from Francis. 

FRANGAG. A Gaelic form of Frances. 

FRANK. A baptismal name corrupted from Francis. 

FRANKI. A Cornish form of Francis. 

FRANZILLA. A female name, like the surname Fran- 
cillon, a diminutive of Francis. 

FREDERICK. The same as the Old German names 
Friderich, Fridorich, Fridurih. Junius translates the two 
latter 'rich or powerful in peace.' The more probable ety- 
mology is from frid-reich, powerful protector. 

FREELOVE. A baptismal name, but whether male or 
female is doubtful. 


FRIDESWELDE. Found as a baptismal name. The 
inverse of the 0. G. name Walfrid, from walt-frid, powerful 

FULK or FOWK. This name probably means * powerful, 
one who represents the people;' from A. S. folc, the folk, 
people, common people. Conf. the O. G. names Folco, 
Fulco, Fulca ; and Meidinger's Folcrat, Folcrad, &c. 


GABRIEL. The Scripture name, in H. b*ii, Gabriyel, 
from gebher-El, man of God. Simonis renders it ' vir Dei,' 
t. e. legatus Dei ; and Alexander translates it 'the mighty 
one [or hero] of God.' The nickname is Gab. 

GABRIELL. Another spelling of Gabriel. 

GAMALIEL. Found as a baptismal name. The Scrip- 
ture name, in H. iw^Di, Gamliyel, from gamdl-El y the gift, 
or benefit of God. Simonis translates it * attributio seu 
praemium Dei ; ' the Rev. Alfred Jones, ' recompence of 

GASTON. A name imported from France, as in Gaston 
de Foix. Lower says that in the Hundred Rolls the surname 
is written De la Garston, which he derives from A. S. gars- 
tun, grass enclosure. We have also the name Garstin, which 
Ferguson says is the 0. N. personal name Geirsteinn, 
found in the Landnamabok. But Gaston is more probably 
from the Fr. gaston, baton; or, like the Parisian names 
Gastot, Gasteau, Gastal, a diminutive of the name Gast ; 
from gast, which Roquefort renders ' seigneur,' and derives 
from L. vastus (huge, burly). Borel translates the old word 



yastos, ' savant, sage ; ' whence he says have been derived 
the old Gaulish names Wisogastus, Husegastus, Salegastus, 
Losogastus, who wrote the Salic Law. 

GATHRED. A corruption of Gertrude. 

GATTY. A name derived from Gertrude. 

GAVIN, GAWAN, GAWEN. Old Scotch male 
names. From Gael, gobhainn, a blacksmith. 

GAWIN. Another spelling of Gawen. See GAVIN. 

GEARRMAIDE. An old Irish name, signifying 'the 
chief of the short cudgel ;' from gearr short, maide a stick. 
Annals of Ireland. 

GEFFREY. Another form of Geoffrey. 

GENOVOVA. A female name. See GUENEVERK. 

GEOFFERY. Another form of Geoffrey. 

GEOFFREY. Some translate this name ' God's peace 
or joyful peace.' The name has been corrupted from Galfrid, 
for Walfrid ; from O. G. walt-frid, powerful protector. 
Chaucer's Christian name is found written Gaufredus in 
Mediaeval Latin. The nickname is Jeff. 

GEORGE. From the L. name Georgius ; from Greek 
yewpyoc, a tiller of the ground, a husbandman, a vine- 
dresser. George is found as a female name. George Anne 
Bellamy played Constance to Garrick's King John. Conf. 
Rose's Biog. Diet. ; the P. Cyc. ; and N. Q. 4th S. x. 197. 

Female names derived from George, q. v. 

GERARD. From the 0. G. name Gerhard, Gerart ; 
from ger-hart, very strong. 

GERTRUDE. From the O. G. name Gertrude ; from 
ger-draut, which will translate either 'very faithful' or 'very 
dear or beloved.' 


GERVAS. From the 0. G. ger~wisa, a war leader ; or 
ger-wis, very wise or prudent. 

GERVASE, GERVAIS. Same as Gervas. 

GESANA. A female baptismal name. One writer 
says Gesana, or rather Gesina, is a very common female 
name in Friesland, and not unknown in other parts of the 
Netherlands. According to others Gesana is a Spanish 
name, and of Scriptural origin. It is scarcely Scriptural, 
and is probably derived from the ending of some feminine 

GIDEON. From Tsfetuv, the Gr. form of the Scriptural 
name, in H. piTtf, Gidhon, which Tregelles renders * cutter 
down,' i. e. brave soldier. 

GIFT. A female name, which may be compared with 
the Hebrew names Beriah, Mattan, and Zabad, of the same 

GILBERT. Some derive this name from the Norman 
Giselbert ; others translate it ' bright pledge, or bright as 
gold.' It has been corrupted down from the O. G. name 
Childebert, from child-brecht, distinguished warrior. The 
nickname is Gib. 

GILES. Bailey and others derive this name from 
.^Egidius, from Gr. cuyoe, a goatskin. Others translate 
-ZEgidius, 'with the aegis.' A<y/&ov is a kid, a young goat ; 
from ou, aiyoe ; and euy/foov is also an adjective. I have 
no doubt that Giles is often derived from Julius. 

GILLIAN. A corruption of Julian, q. v. 

GILLEASBUIG. The Gaelic form of Archibald. 

GILLEBRIDE. A Gaelic form of Gilbert. 

GILLECRIOSD. The Gaelic form of Christopher. 
But it really means ' servant of Christ.' 


GILLES. The English form of Gille losa. 

GILL IOSA. A Gaelic name signifying ' servant of 

GILLE NAOMH. A Gaelic name signifying * servant 
of the saint.' 

GILLIONDRAS. A Gaelic form of Andrew, lit. son of 

GIORSAL. The Gaelic form of Grace. 


GLADYS. A name not uncommonly given to Welsh 
females. It is found written Gladuse, Gladusa, Gwladus, 
Gwladis (pronounced Gladus), Wladis, and in Latin charters 
Gladowsa. It is most probably a Welsh form of Claudia. 
One writer, however, has seen the name Gladuse, Gladusa, 
Gladys, rendered ' lame,' but he doubts the meaning. An- 
other says the name should be spelt Gwladus, and not 
Gladys ; that therefore some are of opinion that the root is 
gwlad, country ; that in Welsh gwladgar is patriotic, and 
gwladwr a countryman, and that there is greater resemblance 
between the roots of these words and Gladys than with 
Claudia ; and he gives as a name Gwladus Dhu. Again an- 
other writer observes, ' The name Gwladys is purely Celtic, 
and means 'a princess.' It is derived from the Welsh gwlad, 
which now means ' of country,' but must formerly have sig- 
nified a prince, a sovereign, a meaning which still survives in 
several of its derivations, as well as in the cognate forms in 
some of the Celtic languages ; the first element ys is a form 
of the feminine es constantly used to form feminine appella- 
tives from corresponding masculines, and is the same with 
the English ess, Greek i<r<ra, &c.' In Carnarvonshire, how- 
ever, persons colloquially called Gwladus or Gladus gene- 


rally write their name Claudia ; and Littleton renders the 
name Gladys, Gladuse, as a British name, by Claudia. See 
also N. Q. 5th S. viii. 436, et passim. 

GODARD. Same as the Alemannic name Gothart ; 
from cuat-hart, very good. 

GODWIN. Lye says this name may mean 'illustrious 
in war, or beloved by God.' I render it ' friend of God, t. e. 

GOODIE, GOOD DIE. Probably pet -names formed 
from the adjective good. 

GOSPATRICK. Another orthography of Cospatrick. 

GO WER. A Welsh name derived from Gwyr, co. Gla- 
morgan ; from gu'yr, verdant. 

GRACE. A feminine form of the Roman name Gratius; 
from gratia, grace, favour, goodwill, kindness. Conf. the 
name Charis, a goddess among the Greeks, and wife of 
Vulcan : from %a^<c, grace. 

GRACILLA. A female name formed from the name 
Grace ; or from L. gracilis, slender ; or perhaps a diminu- 
tive formed from the Sp. gracil, gracil, slender. 

GRAHAM. From the Gaelic gruama, surly, stern, 
morose, dark, gloomy ; gruamach, surly, stern, frowning, 
grim ; or gruaimean, a surly man, a man with a frowning 

GREGORY. From the Latin name Gregorius, from 
Gr. ypyyopew, to watch. The name means * watchful.' 
Conf. the name Ira. 

GRIFFITH. The English form of the Welsh name 
Gryffydd, q. v. 

GRIOGAIR. The Gaelic form of Gregory. 

GRISELDA. The Gaelic form of Grissel. 


GRISSEL. This name is said by some to mean ' stout 
lady ' in German. Lower, after speaking of the surname 
Grisell, Grissell, and the Scottish Saint Grizelda or 
Grizel, says a less complimentary derivation would be from 
grisel, a pig. The name is found written Griselda, and is 
from 0. G. greis-held, for greis-alt, a grey noble (lady). 

GRIZELL, GRIZZELL. Different spellings of Grissel. 

GRUFFYDD. A Welsh form of Gryffydd. 

GRYFFYDD. The Welsh name; from creffydd, strong 
faith, or strong in faith. 

GRYSSELL. Another orthography of Grissel. 

GUADHRE. The Gaelic form of Godfrey. 

GUAIRE. An old Irish name, signifying noble or ex- 
cellent. Annals of Ireland. 

GUENEVER. This female name, which is found written 
Guenevere, Guinivere, Genovova (in British, Gwenhwyfar, 
Gwenfrewi, Ganivre, and Ganore ; in Coruish, Jennifer ; 
in It. Ginevra and Zinevra ; in Fr. Gerveve and Gene- 
vieve ; in Med. L. Genovefa), is said by some to be of 
Celtic origin, and to mean * white wave ; ' but this is im- 
possible. Catherinot de Bourges derives it from Zenobia, 
but, as Menage says, the name is of Teutonic, not of Greek, 
origin. The name is a corruption of Winifred, q. v. 

GULIELMA. A female name derived from Gulielmus, 
the Latin form of William, q. v. %. 

GUSTAVUS. From the Swedish name Gustaf, which 
some translate 'Goth's staff;' others derive it from the 
Su.-Goth God, God or good, and staf staff. But Gustaf is 
more probably corrupted from Augustus. See Ihre's Lex. 

GUY. Some derive this name from Fr. gui, mistletoe. 
Baxter thinks it comes through the Celtic Kei from Caius ; 


Bailey says, of Fr. guide a leader, or guidon a banner.' I 
say, from Guillaume (William), whence no doubt, as 
diminutives, the French names Guyot and Guion. 

G WALLTER. A Welsh form of Walter. 

GWEN. A Welsh female name. From gwen, white, 
fair, beautiful. 

GWENDOLINE. Another spelling of Gwendolen. 

GWENDOLEN. A Welsh female name. Some trans- 
late it * the lady of the bow ; ' but gwen is not a lady, and 
dolen is not the weapon called a bow, but signifies a winding, 
bow, ring, loop. Others translate the name 'white-browed.' 
The Welsh gwendal certainly signifies * having a white fore- 
head, fair- fronted.' 

Teg yw dy dwf 

bai deg Indeg wendal. 

[Fair is thy growth, if white-fronted 
Indeg should be deemed fair.] 


GWENO. A diminutive of the female name Gwen. 


G WENFREWI. A Welsh form of Guenever, q. v. 


GWENLLIAN. A Welsh female name in use as early 
as the beginning of the eleventh century, and said to mean 
* white linen.' If so, it must have been originally Gwynllian. 

of William. 


GWRIL. A Welsh name, which some translate 'lordly.' 
Pughe renders the word gwrial 'an heroic act, a combat;' 


Spurrell renders the noun combating,' and the verb 'to 
play the man. 

GWYN. A Welsh male name. From gwyn, bliss ; or 
gwyn, white, fair, pleasant, agreeable. 

GWYNACH. A Welsh female name signifying felicity, 

GWYDYR. A Welsh name, by some rendered 'wrath- 
ful.' Lewis derives Gwydir, the name of a township in 
Carnarvon, from gwaed-dir, the bloody land, from the place 
having been the scene of some battles fought by Llywarch 
lien, about 610 ; or from a sanguinary conflict which oc- 
curred in 952 between the sons of Hywel Dda and the 
princes lievav and lago. Gwedwr would translate *a 


HA GAR. A female name derived from the handmaid 
of Sarah, in H. i:n, Haghar, which some translate 'flight,' 
because she was put to flight by her mistress (Gen. xvi. 1 ; 
xxv. 12). Others render the name ' stranger,' from gur, to 
tarry, to be a sojourner ; and, says Jones, this answers to 
her condition as a stranger or sojourner in the family of 

HAIDEE (Fr. Haydee). A female name probably 
derived from oJ&oc, which Stephanus renders ' sempiternus,' 
i.e. perpetual, eternal. 

HAIN. A male name of German origin. It may be an 
abbreviation of Hainricus, from Heinreich, from root of 
Henry ; or from 0. G. hain t a grove. 


HALBERT. Another spelling of Albert. Halbert was 
not an uncommon name in Scotland in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. 

HALICIA. Another spelling of Alice. 

HAMESH. A Scottish form of James. 

HAMLET. Found as a baptismal name. There does 
not appear to be any etymological connexion between this 
name and Hamnet. According to some the name in Hamlet's 
country was pronounced Amlet, and signifies ' madman/ but 
no etymology has been suggested for such rendering. Amlet 
is the same name as Amleth, mentioned in the Danske 
Historic of Saxo Grammaticus (1752, 72-8), and Amlethus, 
King of Denmark and Sweden, found in Zedler's Lexicon. 
The name is from the O. G. amal-laut, distinguished for 
spotlessness. See HAMNET. 

HAMNET. This used to be a very common name in 
Lancashire, and is still in use in Middlesex. It is also 
found written Hamnett and Hammett. Hamnette is also 
found as a male name. A correspondent of N. Q. 5th S. 
v. 461 , derives this name, as well as Hamlyn, Hamelyn, 
Hamelyen, Hamalin, Hamblet, Hambleth, Hamelot, Hamlit, 
Hamlett, Hamlet, from Hamo, who came over with the 
Conqueror, I have elsewhere traced Hamlet to a different 

HAMO. This is still found as a male baptismal name. 
It is derived from Hamo, who came over with the Con- 
queror ; perhaps from the Icelandic hamr, a skin (Helreith 
Brynhildar, hamo, A. S. homa, skin) found in ulf-hamr, the 
nickname of a mythological king, which Cleasby translates 
' wolf-skin.' 

HANNAH. The Scripture name, in H. run, Hannah, 


which Simonis translates 'gratuitous gift (that is, grace, 
mercy) ; ' Fuerstius, ' beauty, charm (schonheit, anmuth).' 

HAROLD. The same with the M. H. G. names Ariold, 
Harhold, and with Cariovalda, dux Batavorum apud 
Taciturn, Annal. xi. 11, which Wachter translates 'power- 
ful in battle (ger-walt).' 

HARRIOTT. Female names formed from Harry. 

HARRY. Found as a baptismal name, derived from 

HARTY, HATTY. Derived from Henrietta. 

HARVEY. Found as a baptismal name, from 0. G. 
her-wig, noble soldier or warrior. 

HAWISE. This female name (which has been cor- 
rupted down to Avice and Avis) is from Hadewisa, formed 
from the German name Hedvig, same as Edwig, which 
Wachter translates 'propugnator felicitatis ;' say, 'fortunate 

HEBE. Found as a female name. Derived from Hebe, 
daughter of Jupiter and Juno, or of Juno only ; and who, 
being fair and always in the bloom of youth, was called 
the goddess of youth, and made by her mother cup-bearer 
to all the gods ; from ij/3ij, puberty, youth. 

HECKA. A Cornish form of Dick. 

HECTOR. From the Greek name 'Exrwp. The name 
signifies anchor, lit. what holds ; from s-^aj. O avat o 
sxrwp cr^sSov ravTov (Dj/^avsi. Plato, Crat. 393. 

HELEN, HELENA. From the classical name ' 
signifying a lamp, a torch. Others derive it from 
2 aor. infin. of aig ew, to take away. The nicknames are 
Nell, Nelly, Nellie. 


HELENGENWAGH. If of Celtic origin this name 
might translate * willow marsh.' 

HENEKY. A name corrupted from Henry. 

HENGIST. Found as a male name at the present day. 
From A. S. hengest, which Lye renders 'cantherius, caballus,' 
i. e. gelding, horse. Conf. G. hengst, which Hilpert renders 
' stone-horse, stallion, seed-horse, horse ; ' Dan. hingst, a 

HENNA. A Cornish form of Henrietta. 

HENNY. A female name derived from Henrietta. 

HENRI. A male name, the French form of Henry. 

HENRIETTA. A name formed from Henry. The 
nicknames are Henny, Hetty, Harty, Hatty. 

HENRIQUIETA. A female name derived from Enri- 
quieta, the Sp. form of Harriet. 

HENRY. One author renders this name ' home-ruler.' 
Meidinger gives a Gothic name Heinric, an Icelandic 
Heimrekr, and the M. H. G. names Chuniric, Cynric, 
Kunric, Henric, Kenrec, Hunerich, Hainreich, the A. S. 
Henric and Cynric, and the N. H. G. Heinrich ; but all 
these names are the same as the old Hunoricus, from Jcun- 
reich, illustrious for strength (virtute pollens). 

HERBERT. A name derived from the Alernannic 
Heribert, Heribret, Heripreht, O. G. Aribert, which Wach- 
ter derives from aer-bert, illustrious in battle. It might also 
come from her-bert, illustrious lord. The nickname is Hab. 

HERCULES. Found as a baptismal name at the present 
day. The Latin name, in Greek written 'H^axAeije, by con- 
traction 'Hp axAije. According to some Hercules or 'Hf axA^g 
was so called because through Juno (*Hfa) he was destined 
to gain immortal glory (xAsog), and live in the praises of 


posterity (Diod. S. 4, 10 ; Schol. Rud. 01. 6, 115). Macrobius 
(Sat. 1, 20) renders Hercules 'glory of Hera, the lower 
air, the native darkness of which is illumined by the sun.' 
Hermann considers Hercules as virtue personified, and 
carrying off glory and praise : 'HcaxXrjc r^aro xAeoe (Briefe 
iiber Homer und Hesiod, p. 20). Knight gives to the fable 
of the hero a physical basis, from the worship of the sun, 
* glorifier of the earth,' from ego. xXsog (Symb. Lang. Sec. 
130). Lempriere says, however, the name is probably of 
Oriental origin ; and that the Latin Hercules, Hercole, 
Ercle, is to all appearance a more ancient form than the 
Greek 'HpaxAijc; and he refers to Lennep. Etym. L. G. 245; 
Lanzi, Saggio di Ling. Etrusca, 2, 206. 

HERMIONE. A name derived from Hermione'Effuo'vij, 
a daughter of Mars and Venus, and who married Cadmus ; 
also a daughter of Menelaus and Helen. The name is 
derived from 'Hpju^c, Mercury. 

HERO. An English female name, so called after the 
celebrated Greek name f Hfw\ which may translate ' one 
raised or elevated,' from aifuj, to lift up. 

HESTER. Another orthography of Esther. 

HETTEY, HETTY. Baptismal female names derived 
from Henrietta ; perhaps also from Harriet. 

HEYSA. Perhaps the same as Isa. 

HEZEKIAH. The Scripture name, in H. irrpin, 
Hhizkeyyah, from hhe'zek-Yah, the strength of Jehovah. 

HILARY. Derived from the Latin name Hilarius 
signifying pleasant, cheerful, merry. 

Hilarius tamen cum pondere virtus. 
[Virtue may be gay with dignity.] 



HILDA. A female name abbreviated from Everhilda ; 
or derived from the Lombardian word ild, hild, noble. 

HILDEBRAND. The same as O. and M. H. G. names 
Hildebrand and Hiltiprant. Mr. Ferguson says Hildebrand 
was the name of one of the heroes of the Niebelungen Lied, 
and that the name probably means battle sword ; from 
A. S. Jiild battle, and brand. Others translate it var. 
'very fervent, hero, leader, leader of the Brenni;' but, as 
Wachter shows, the name is the same with Childebrand, 
from child-brand, which might translate either 'distinguished 
youth ' or * distinguished warrior.' 

HODGE. From Roger. 

HOMER. An English baptismal name at the present 
time. From the classical name, in Gr. 'O^pof, signifying 
a pledge, security, hostage. Others say from opjf>v, 
to follow ; or, on account of blindness, from opypog, for 
pyopog. But see also Stephanus ; Gaisford ; and Barnes 
ad certamen Homeri et Hesiodi, p. xxi. n. 7 ; et Lucian. 
t. I. p. 676. 

HONOR. A female name derived from L. honor, honour, 
worship, respect, reverence. Honor was the name of a god- 
dess worshipped at Rome, whose temples had no entrance 
but through the Temple of Virtue. 

HONOR A. An Irish female name derived from the 
name Honor. 

HONORIA. A female name derived from the Roman 
name Honoria, the feminine of Honorius ; from root of 
Honor, q. v. 

HOPE. Found as a female name. Conf. the names 
Charity, Faith. 

HORACE. From the classical name Horatius, which 


Littleton derives from ofaroc, aspectabilis, vel dignus 
aspectu ; that is, worthy to be looked upon, or becoming 
in appearance. 

HORATIO. From root of Horace. 
HOSANNAH. Found as an English female name at the 
present time. From H. :j?ttfi!T, Hosanna (coo-awa) signifying 
' Save now,' ' Succour now,' ' Be now propitious,' the cry 
of the multitudes as they thronged in our Lord's triumphal 
procession into Jerusalem. Conf. Smith's Dictionary of the 
Bible, and Dr. Alexander's Kitto. 

HOWEL. The English form of the Welsh name Hywel. 

HUBERT. From the German name Hugobert, which 
Wachter derives from hug-bert, distinguished for memory or 

HUGH. A note in the Annals of Ireland states that 
the Celtic name Aodh (q. v.), pronounced Ee and E, signi- 
fies fire, and was probably derived from the Druidical 
worship ; and that Aodh has been Anglicised into Hugh, 
and Latinised var. Hugo, Aedus, Aedanus, Aidus, and 
Ado. Wachter derives the name Hugo from O. G. hug, 
mens, animus. I derive both Hugo and Hugh from the D. 
hoog, high, tall, elevated. 

HUGOE. A Cornish form of Hugo, t. e. Hugh. 

HULDAH. A female name, so called after Huldah, wife 
of Shallum, a prophetess whom King Josiah sent to consult. 
The name in H. is mbn, Hhuldah, and signifies a mole or 

HUMPHREY. Some absurdly translate this name 
* home- free, home-peace, or peace at home.' It is without 
doubt the same with Cundfrid, which Wachter renders 
' defensor notus,' i. e. illustrious protector. Kun-frid would 


translate 'strong protector.' The nicknames are Humps, 
Nump, and Numps. 

HUNGUS. A corruption of Angus. 

HUWE. An Anglo-Norman form of Hugh. 

HYACINTH. A male name derived from Hyacinthus 
(Gr. 'Taxtvfloe), son of Amyclas and Diomede, greatly be- 
loved by Apollo and Zephyrus ; or from its root yaxivflog, 
the flower called a hyacinth. II. xiv. 348 ; see Ov. Met. 
x. 212. 

HYWEL. A Welsh name. Some write the name Hoel, 
which they render 'lordly;' if so, it may come from huail, a 
vice-regent, regent. Arthur derives the surname Howell 
from Corn. -Brit, houl, the sun ; and he adds. ' Gr. ijAtoe, 
Euhill, high, exalted.' But Hywel is rather from hywel, 

IAIN. A Gaelic form of John. 

ICHABOD. The Scripture name, in H. TQ3->, ly- 
khabhodh, which Simonis renders ' inglorious ' (non gloria 
vel sine gloria, inglorius). 

IDDO. Found as a male name. The Scripture name 
Viy, Iddo, signifying 'timely;' or IT, Iddo, signifying 'love 
of Him,' i. e. of the Lord. 

IDONEA. An old baptismal name derived from L. 
idoneus, fit, meet, proper. 

IDONIA. Another form of Idouea. 

ILTID, ILTUTUS. Modern forms of Iltyd. 

ILTYD. An old name found in Wales. If of Celtic 
origin it may be from the W. ylltyd, an epithet used for 


a plough ; but it is more probably from alltud, one of an- 
other country. In 0. G. it might also have the latter 

IMBLLM, IMBLOING. Different orthographies of the 
name Emblem. 

IMIIHAR. A Gaelic form of Edward. 

IMMANUEL. The proper orthography of Emanuel, 
q. v. 

INDEG. A Welsh female name ; from indeg (in-teg\ of 
subtile fairness or fineness. See quotation under GWENDO- 

INIGO. Another orthography of Innigo or Enneco 
(name of a saint), corrupted from Heinrich, from root of 
Henry, q. v. 


IOLETTA. An Old English form of the name Violet. 

IPHAGENIA. A female name corrupted from Iphi- 
genia, a daughter of Agumemmon and Clytemnestra ; from 
t<pi strongly, ytvo//,at to be born (genita fortis, Littleton). 

IRA. A male name. The Scripture name, in H. NT#, 
Ira, signifying watchful. 

IRENE. A female name. From Eifijvij, goddess of peace, 
lit. peace. 

ISA. This female name has been translated 'iron;' if 
so it comes from G. eisen, but it is more probably derived 
from the head or tail of some name. It may come from 
Isabella or from Adeliza. 

ISAAC. From 'iWx, the Greek form of the Scrip- 
ture name, in H. j?nr Yitschhak, which some translate 
'laughing;' others 'sporting.' Fuerstius renders the name 
'spotter, lacher,' i. e. mocker, great laugher. St. Jerome 


says it was not Sarah who laughed, but Abraham. The 
nicknames are Ikey and Nykin. 

ISABEL, ISABELLA. According to some this name 
is the same as Jezebel, which Tregelles thinks may mean 

* without cohabitation,' i. e. aAo%oc, Plat. p. 249 B, chaste, 
modest ; and he compares it with Agnes. Bailey says 

* Isabella, q. d. Eliza Bella, handsome Elizabeth ; ' but Isa- 
bella is rather from Isabel, the Spanish rendering of 
Elizabeth. A correspondent of N. Q. 4th S. hi. 516, 
says he has written proofs that one and the same 
person, the celebrated Isabella Clara Eugenia, daughter of 
Philip II., whilst she signed 'Isabel, Assabel,' had coins and 
medals struck with 'Albert and Elisabet' and diplomatic 
seals with 'Isabella, D. G. HISPAN. INFANS.' The nick- 
names are Nib and Nibbie.' 

ISAIAH. The Scripture name, in H. inw, 
Y'sha-yahu ; from yesha-Yahu, the salvation of Je- 

ISAEBEL. The Gaelic form of Isabel, Isabella. 

ISIDORE (L. Isidorus). From 'lailtopog, which some 
translate ' strong gift.' The name signifies ' gift ($wpov) of 

ISOBEL, ISSOBEL. Scottish forms of Isabel. 

From the Welsh name Esyllt, q. v. 

ITHEL. A Welsh name derived from the Greek name 
Eu'0aAije\ signifying ' blooming luxuriantly, flourishing, rich.' 
It is from Ithel that we have first the name Ap-Ithel, then 
by corruption Bithell and Bethell. 

IZA. A female name. Perhaps abbreviated from 



JABEZ. The Scripture name, in H. psy, Yabets, which 
Simonis renders, * he will cause pain ' (i. e. to his mother). 

forms of James. 

JACOB. The Scripture name, in H. spy, Yaakob, 
which Tregelles translates ' taking hold of the heel, sup- 
planter, layer of snares ; ' and Fuerstius, ' heel-holder, i. e. 
fraudulent person.' 

JACOBA. A female name derived from Jacob. 

JACOBINA. A Scottish female name formed from 

JAEL. A female name derived from the Scripture Jael, 
which is both a male and a female name. In H. it is 
written by, Yael, and translates ' ibex, chamois.' 

JAFFRAY. Another form of Geoffrey, q. v. 


JAIME. An Anglo-Norman form of James. 

JAJO. A Cornish form of James. 

JAK, JAKE, JAKY. Anglo-Norman forms of James. 

JAKEH. Said to be a Cornish form of John, but 
perhaps rather of its nickname Jack, or still more likely 
from James. 

JAMES. A name corrupted from Jacobus, by change 
of b to m. Conf. the Ip. Jaime, and see JACOB. The nick- 
names are Jim, Jem, Jemmy. 

JAMESINA. A female name derived from James. 

JAMITT. A male name. A diminutive formed from 


JAMMEH. A Cornish form of James. 

JAN. An Anglo-Norman form of John. 

JANE. From the French name Jeanne, from root of 
John (see JEAN). The nicknames are Jenny and Jinny. 

JANET. A diminutive of Jane. 

JASPER. A male name derived from Arab. <>***;. 
yashb, or Pers. yashp, the precious stone jasper. 

JAUME. An Anglo-Norman form of James. 

JAUSE. An Anglo-Norman form of Joseph. 

JEAN. A female name derived from the French name 
Jeanne, the feminine form of Jean ; from root of John, q. v. 

JEDIDIAH. The Scripture name, in H. rrpT, Y'dhiy- 
dhyah, from yadhiydh- Yah, beloved of Jehovah. 

JEHANA. An Anglo-Norman form of John. 

JEHANE. An Anglo-Norman form of Joan. 

JEMIMA. The Scripture name, in H iiD > D', Y'miymah, 
which Gesenius makes i. q. the Arab, yamdnat, a dove. 

JENNIFER. A Cornish form of Guenever. 

JEREMIAH. The Scripture name, in H. nw, Yirm- 
Yah, which Simonis renders * elevated of the Lord * (yaram- 
Tah). The nickname is Jerry. 

JEREMY. A name corrupted from Jeremiah. 

JEROME. A name corrupted from Hieronymus, GT. 
'Iff cuyupoe, which some translate ' holy law (te/ooe and 
others, perhaps more correctly, sacred name,'(t^ov 
It is a curious fact in connexion with this name that the 
grandfather of Hieronymus, whom the latter succeeded as 
King of Sicily, should have been named 'lepwv (Hieron). 

JERICO. Found as a baptismal name. Doubtless a 
male name, and derived from Jericho, the well-known city 
in Palestine. 


JERRY. Found as a male name. Corrupted from 

JESPER. An old form of Jasper, q. v. 

JESSE. A male name. The Scripture name. Fuerstius 
renders w, Jisi, ' Besitz Gottes, God's possession.' 
Jones writes the name in H. Yishay (Gr. 'liaaou) which he 
derives from yesh, wealth. Others render the name 'graft.' 
If so it comes from yash, being, existence. 

JETHRO. A male name derived from the Scripture 
name, in H. irv, Yether, which Simouis translates ' excel- 
lence, excelling.' 

JIMMINAH. A corruption of Jemima. 

JESSICA. A female name. Probably a diminutive of 

JESSIE. A Scotch name, said to be used for Janet. 

JOAN. A female name. Like the French male name 
Joan, formed from root of John. 

JOAS. The Scripture name uwv, Joash, which Fuerstius 
translates ' Gott is samler,' i. e. God is gatherer. 

JOB. The Scripture name, in H. 2VN, lyyobh (Arab. 
Ayyub), f. e. the persecuted (man). 



JOH AN, Found in Scotland as a female form of John. 

JOHANNA. A female name derived from John. 

JOHN. From 'Iwavvije, the Greek form of Johanan, in 
H. pmrp, Y'hohhauan. var. translated ' the Lord gave gra- 
ciously ; whom Jehovah gave ; whom Jehovah bestowed.' 
John is also found as a female name. One of the Registrars 
of Births tells me that John is not a very uncommon 
female name. He says further that male names are given 


to females through the death of a son who bore his father's 
name, and that it often happens after the birth of the fifth 
or sixth child. 

JOHNINA. A female name formed from John. 

JOKUOSA. The same as Jocosa. See JOYCE. 

JONAH. The Scripture name, in H. rriV, Yonah, a 
dove ; perhaps given as a term of endearment. 

JONAS. A corruption of Jonah. 

JONADAB. The Scripture name, which Kitto writes 
aw (Yonadhabh), a contraction of Y'honadhabh, i. e. God- 
impelled. Jones refers to the name Jehonadab, which he 
translates 'the Lord gave spontaneously,' i. e. gave him 
freely to his parents. 

JONATHAN. The Scripture name, in H. fnarp, Y'hon- 
athan ; from Y'hov-nathdn, the Lord gave, or given by 

JONE. Another spelling of Joan. 

JONET. A Scottish form of Janet. 

JORDAN. A male name, which is thought to have 
been derived, perhaps in Crusading times, from the cele- 
brated river. 

JORGI. An Anglo-Norman form of George. 

JORWERTH. A Cornish form of Edward. 

JOSCELIN. A female name, found written Joscelyne and 
Jocelin, and by corruption Joscelind. A diminutive formed 
from L. Justus. The German name Jost is rendered Joscelin. 

JOSE. A Cornish form of Joseph. 

JOSEPH. The Scripture name, in H. JqttfV, Yosheph, 
signifying ' he shall add.' Gesenius says this is confirmed 
by the Chaldaic form Fpirr, Y'hoseph. The nicknames 
of Joseph are Jo, Joe, and Joey. 


JOSHUA. The Scripture name, in H. jnunir, Y'hoshua, 
from ' Yhov-shud, whose help or salvation is Jehovah. The 
Greek form is 'Ljo-oiJe. 

JO SI AH. The Scripture name, in H. irrtir>, Yoshiyya'hu, 
which Simonis translates 'whom the Lord gives' (ashdh- 
Thu); and Kitto, Jehovah heals' (say 'benefits,' from 
Arab. ^jJ\). 

JOSSOWAY. A male name corrupted from Joshua, 
q. v. 

JOYCE. A female name. Lower derives this name 
from Fr. joyeuse, cheerful, hilarious. Others derive it from 
Jocosa, a very common name in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries ; from ~L.jocosus, merry, sportive. 


JUDAH. The Scripture name, in H. imiT, Y'hudhah, 

JUDITH. The Scripture name, in H. rmrr, Y'hud- 
hiyth, which Winer translates ' in the Jewish tongue ; ' St. 
Jerome and Simonis, ' praised,' like Judah. Fuerstius, who 
writes the name Jehudit, translates it 'eine Judaerin.' The 
nicknames are Judy and Ju. 

JUDY. Found as a female baptismal name. See 

JUDYTH. Another spelling of Judith. 

JUERS. An Anglo-Norman form of George. 

JULIA. The feminine of Julius. 

JULIAN. A name derived from the Latin Julianus, 
formed from Julius. Julian is a female as well as a male 

JULIANA. A female name derived from Julian. 

JULIET. A diminutive formed from Julia. 


JULIUS. The Roman name, said to be derived from 
Julus or lulus (name of Ascanius, son of JEneas) ; from 
Gr. touAoc, the first down which appears on the cheeks of 
young persons at the age of puberty. 

JUST. From the Latin name Justus ; from Justus, just, 
upright, righteous. 

JUSTICE. Temperance, Justice, and Prudence were 
names given to three daughters of John d'Anvers, of Cal- 
worth. See N. Q. 5th S. vii. 149. From L. justicia. 

JUSTIN. A male name derived from the Roman Jus- 
tinus, formed from Justus. See JUST. 

JUSTIN A. A female name formed from Justin. 


KABEDIGIA. A female name which some think to 
have been corrupted from Rabege, another form of Rebecca. 
Conf. N. Q. 5th S. x. 329 ; 6th S. ii. 354, 418. 
KALLEZ. An Anglo-Norman form of Charles, 
KARENHAPPUK. Found as a female name. The 
Scripture name Keren-Happuch, in H. "pan pp>, Qeren- 
happukh. In the LXX, says Dr. Lee, the word is ren- 
dered by Kfjoae Apa,xQeiot,, Amalthea's horn, or cornucopia, 
alluding to the fable of Amalthea, to whom Zeus gave a horn 
endowed with the power of becoming filled with whatever 
the possessor desired ; and recent interpreters have gene- 
rally followed the Vulgate, rendering Cornu-Stibii 'horn 
of Stibium,' used as a pigment to adorn the eyebrows of 
women in Arabia, and as a collyrium to give lustre to the 
eyes. Ewald translates the name Schmink-biichse l paint- 
box or rouge-pot;' Renan, l Boite dejard.' Dr. Alexander, 


referring to the above, says, "It is not easy to conceive how 
such a name should come to be bestowed on a beautiful 
girl. Rosenmuller says it was ' a prsestantia formse quod 
naturali sua forma aeque venusta esset et ornata ac eas 
mulieres quae stibio oculos fucant.' But this is surely very 
far-fetched. Does not 713 mean generally something orna- 
mented or made artificially beautiful (Comp. Is. liv. 11, 
where it is used of building per ordinem ; Vulg. ; avfyaxa, 
Sept.; and I. Chron. xxix. 2, where it designates some kind 
of stone beautified) ; and may not Job's daughter's name 
thus mean 'horn of adornment,' or 'horn of beauty?' 'Surely 
a better name for a damsel of surpassing loveliness than 
either Horn of Plenty or Horn of Stibium, to say nothing 
of paint-box or rouge-pot." 


KATHLEEN. According to McPherson this name 
is derived from the Ossianic Cathlinn or Gathlinn, the 
name of the north polar star, and signifying the 'beam of the 
wave' (gath beam, linne the sea). But Kathleen is rather 
an Irish diminutive of Catharine. 

KENELM. Camden derives this Saxon name from 
kind-helm, the helmet or protector of his kindred. Verste- 
gan translates it ' king's helmet.' 

KENNETH. The English form of the Gaelic name 
Coinneach; perhaps from caoin-neach, a kind, gentle, or 
mild man. 

KENTIGERN. A Gaelic name ; from ceann-tigearn, 
head chief. 

KENTIGERNA. A feminine form of Kentigern. 

KESIA. A female name; perhaps the same name a 

PIl^2NOMINA. 73 

KEZIAH. A female name derived from Kezia, daughter 
of Job, in H. nysfp, Kt'sija, signifying cassia, a bark similar 
to cinnamon. The Rev. A. Jones adds, '". e. equally as 
precious ' (as cassia). 

KINDNESS. Found as a female name in the parish 
registers of Nottingham. Conf. the name Benigna. 

KITTO, KITTOE. Cornish forms of Kit, for Christo- 

KYRLE. A male name probably derived from Karl or 
Carl, from root of Charles. 


LABAN. A male name. The Scripture name, in H. 
pb, Labhan, signifying white. 

LABHRAINN. The Gaelic form of Lawrence. 

LACHLAN. The English form of Lachlann. 

LACHLANN. The Gaelic name, probably from laoch, 
a hero, champion ; or the diminutive laochan. 

LAMBERT. This name has been absurdly translated 
'bright or fair lamb.' It has been corrupted from the 
O. G. name Laudbert, Lantprecht j from land-brecht, one 
distinguished among the people. 

LANCE. Abbreviated from Lancelot. 

LANCELOT. This name is sometimes rendered 'ser- 
vant;' if so, the bearer was so called from carrying a lance 
or pike. The name seems to be a diminutive formed from 
L. lancea, a lance, javelin, a word which Varro thinks of 
Spanish origin. 

LARISSA. A female name called after Larissa, a 


daughter of Pelasgus, who is said to have given her name 
to some cities of Greece. 

LASAIRFHIONA. An old Irish female name signify- 
ing a wine-faced or rosy-complexioned woman. See Annals 
of Ireland. 

LAUNCE. Abbreviated from Launcelot. 

LAUNCELOT. Another spelling of Lancelot. 

LAURA. A female name derived from L. laurus, a 
laurel or baytree, dedicated to Apollo, used in triumphs, 
and worn by emperors and poets in garlands. Tullius 
Laurea was the appellation of a freedman of Cicero. Laura 
corresponds to the Greek name Daphne. 

LAUREL. A female name from root of Laura, q. v. 

LAURENCE, LAWRENCE. From the Latin name 
Laurentius, formed from laureo, to crown with a laurel. 
Conf. Laurentia, foster-mother of Romulus and Remus. 

LAVINIA. Found as a female name. Conf. N. Q. 5th 
S. ii. 512. Called after Lavinia, a daughter of King Latinus 
and Amata, and married JEneas. 


LAZARUS. From Aa'apoe, for 'EAtao-a/o, from the 
Scripture name, in H. irybK, Elazar, from El-azdr, God 
aids, i. e. whom God aids. 

LEAH. The Scripture name, in H. nvb, Leah, signify- 
ing * wearied.' 

LEANDER. From the Greek name Aeaxfywc, Aei&vdpog, 
perhaps from KAavfy>oc ; which would translate 'man of 

LEBBJEUS. A male name derived from A/3/3aToc, one 
of the names of St. Jude (the other being Thaddaeus). 
Calmet translates the name ' man of heart,' from nub, labab, 


the heart; St. Jerome says, 'hearty.' Crusius derives the 
name from Lebbe, a maritime town of Galilee mentioned 
by Pliny. It is more probably from H" 1 ^, labheea, a lion. 
Conf. Gen. xlix. 9, where Judah is styled lion's whelp. 

LEBBEUS. Another spelling of Lebbseus, q. v. 

LEMUEL. The Scripture name, in H. ^wrb, L'muel ; 
from Vmu-El, by God, t. e. created by God. Conf. the 
synonymous name Lael. 

LEO. A lion, Lat. 

LEOFSTAN. A male name. From A. S. leof-stan, 
beloved stone ; fig. beloved protector. 

LEOFWIN. A male name derived from A. S. leof-win, 
loved friend. Hence the surname Lewin. 

LEOLIN or LEOLINE. A not uncommon male name. 
Perhaps corrupted from Lionel. 

LEONARD. From the O. G. name Leonhard, M. G. 
Lenhard ; from lowe(n)hard, as strong as a lion. The 
nickname is Len. 

LEOPOLD. Wachter renders this name 'bold as a 
lion (audax instar leonis).' It is doubtless the same name 
as the O. G. Leopold, Leupold, Leodpold, Leutpold, Liu- 
pold, Liutbold, Liutpald, Liutpold ; Luitbold, from the 
Francic or Alamannic liut-paldo, distinguished for boldness. 

LEPEL. A male name. Perhaps corrupted from 
Leopold. Lepel is, however, the name of two towns (New 
and Old) of Russian Poland, gov. Vitebsk. 

LETITIA. A female name derived from L. Icetitia, joy, 
gladness, mirth. The nicknames are Lettice, Lett, Letty, 
and Tish. 

LETTICE. Found as a baptismal name. See LETITIA. 



LEWIS. Like the French name Louis, corrupted down 
from Ludovicus, from the 0. G. name Ludwig ; from laut- 
wig, illustrious warrior. From this name we have the old 
female names Lewes and Lewisa, whence the modern name 

LHUYD. A Welsh name signifying brown, grey. 

LIELA. A female name said to be a mispelling of 
Leila or Lelia, which, by the bye, has been corrupted down 
from Delilah, var. Dalilah. 

LILIAN. A female name. From L. lilium, a lily. 

L1LIAS. A Scottish female name derived from root of 

LILLIAS. An English female name. Same as Lilias. 

LINA. A female name derived from some name ending 
in Una, as Carolina, Catalina, Paulina ; and perhaps some- 
times from the Italian name Maddalena, or the Spanish 

LINDA. Found as a female name. Abbreviated from 

LIONEL. A name formed from a word leonellus, a 
diminutive of L. leo, a lion. 

LISSIE. A female name derived from Elizabeth. 

LltiSAIDH. The Gaelic form of Louisa. 

LIZZIE. A baptismal female name derived from 


LLOYD. The English form of the Welsh Lhuyd, q. v. 

LLWYD. Same as Lhuyd, q. v. 

LOE YS. An Anglo-Norman form of Lewis. 

LORA. A form of Laura, which occurs as early as 1208. 

LORETTA. A diminutive of Lora. 


LOTTY. A female name corrupted from Charlotte. 

LOUISA. A comparatively modern name formed from 
Lewis,^. v. 

LOUISE. A French name formed from Louis. See 

LUCAS. The Gaelic form of Luke. 

LUCIE. The French form of Lucy. 

LUCILE. A female name formed from Lucilius, name 
of the celebrated Roman satirist ; derived no doubt from 

LUCINETTE. A diminutive of Lucy, or derived from 
L. lucinus, bringing light. 

LUCIUS. Found as a male name. The Roman name 
is said to be derived from lux, lucis, light. Diet, quod 
prima luce natus est (a child born at sunrise or daybreak). 

LtfCREIS. The Gaelic form of Lucretia. 

LUCRE TI A. A name derived from Lucretia, a cele- 
brated Roman lady, daughter of Lucretius, and wife of 
Tarquinius Collatinus; a feminine form of Lucretius, derived 
from lucrum, gain, profit, advantage. Mr. Arthur says 
Lucretia is a name proper for a good housewife. 

LUCY. A name derived from Lucia, a female name 
derived from Lucius. 

LUKE. From the Latin name Lucas, in Gr. Aouxag. 
Some maintain that the original name was Lucius. Ste- 
phanus says Lucas (Aoyxag) is contracted from Lucanus 
(Lucan), like Silas from Silvanus ; and according to Mabil- 
lon (Museo Italico) in some codices the full name Lucanus 
is prefixed to that of the Evangelist. Schleusner, Etym. 
Gud. p. 373, says Acuxae is both a Roman and a Greek 


name ; but that according to others both Atuxac and Acwxac 
are from Atuxoe, shining. But this Aeuxac can hardly refer 
to Lucanus. 

LUNDY. Found as a male name. Perhaps so called 
from being born on a Monday, Fr. lundi. 

LUTHAIS. The Gaelic form of Lewis. 

LYDIA. A Latin name mentioned in Horace ; so 
called as coming from Lydia, in Asia Minor. 

LYWELYN. The old spelling of Llewellyn, the Welsh 
form of Lionel. 


MABEL, MABELL. A female name derived from 
Mabilia, Latinised from Amabel, q. v. 

MACE. A female name derived from Mace, one of the 
Old French forms of Mathew. 

MADAWG. The Welsh original of Madoc, signifying 
' goodly ' (from mad, good). Dr. Puhe says, ' Madawg is an 
epithet for a fox, equivalent to the word reynard, and is a 
very common name of men.' 

MADELINE. A female name softened down from 
Magdalen. Conf. the Fr. Madeleine and Madelon ; the It. 
Maddalena ; and the Sp. Madelena. 

MADGE. A female baptismal name derived from 

MADOC. The English form of the Welsh name 

MADONNA. A name derived from It. Madonna, the 
Virgin Mary. See also CRIMEA. 

MAGDALEN. A name derived from Mary Magdalene. 


Josephus says she took her name either from the town of 
Magdala, in Galilee, beyond Jordan, and not far from 
Gamala ; or from Magdalos, a town on this side of Jordan, 
at the foot of Mount Carmel, the Megiddu of Joshua and 
II. Kings. The nicknames of the English name are 
Maudlin and Maun. 

MAGNUS. This Christian name was a personal name 
borne by many Scandinavian monarchs. Some derive it 
from L. magnuSj great ; but it would seem to be from 
that of Charlemagne, whose name in Icelandic is found 
written Karla-magnus. By the bye, Charlemagne is a 
corruption of Karlmann, signifying ' strong man.' Conf. 
Cleasby's Icelandic Dictionary, quoting Vigfusson, and 
Olaf's Saga Helga, ch. iii. 

MAHI, MAHIE. Anglo-Norman forms of Matthew. 

MAIRE ARAD. The Gaelic form of Margaret. 

MAlRI. A Gaelic form of Mary. 

MAIRTEAN, MARTUIN. Gaelic forms of Martin. 

MAKEPEACE. A baptismal name which explains 
itself. Compare the Spanish surname Pacifico. 

MALACHI. A male baptismal name. The Scripture 
name, in H. ^bn, Malakhi ; from malak-Yah, messenger of 

MALCOLM. A name derived from the Gaelic maol- 
Cholum, the servant of Columba. Maol signifies lit. ( the 
brow of a rock, a bald head ; ' then ' a shorn head, a monk.' 

MALL. Found as a baptismal name, and corrupted from 

MALREAD, MILR^AD. Gaelic forms of Mildred. 

MALVINA. A female name derived from Malmhin, 
name of the daughter of Toscar, who was mistress of Oscar, 


the son of Ossian ; from maol-mhin, smooth brow. The 
name Malvine is very common in France. 

MANFRED. Some translate this name * mighty peace ; ' 
others absurdly derive it from It. mano-freddo (say fredda\ 
cold hand. It comes from the 0. G. name Manfrit, 
which Ferguson derives from frit, peace. It is properly 
frotn mund-frid, protecting man, i. e. protector. 

MAOIS. The Gaelic form of Moses. 

MAOLSEACHLAIN. An Old Irish name signifying 
* the servant of Sechnall or Seachlan.' 

MARCHINA. A female child born in the month of 

MARGARET. From Gr. ^apyapjnjg, a pearl. The 
nicknames and pet-names are Margery, Madge, Meg, 
Moggie, Padge, Page, Peg, Peggy. 

MARGARETTA. Formed from Margaret. 

MARGERY. A baptismal name derived from Margaret. 

MARIA. A name derived from Map/a, one of the Greek 
forms of Miriam. Maria is found as a male name as well 
as a female name. Viscount Montague, of Cowdray, Sussex, 
who succeeded to the title as second viscount, was christened 
Anthony Maria Browne. In Camden's Remains (p. 44), 
referred to in Delicie Literarise, occurs Thomas Maria 
Wingfield ; and there was also a Sir Edward Maria Wing- 
field. The name appears to hav6 been adopted in the latter 
family from Mary, daughter of Henry VIII. Conf. N. Q. 
5th S. ii. 73, 316, 478. Marie is frequently found as a 
male name in France and in other parts of the Continent. 

MARIAN. A diminutive of Mary. 

MARIANNE. Sometimes corrupted from Marian ; at 
other times from Mary Anne. 

PRjfiNOMINA. 81 

MARIE. The French form of Mary, 

MARION. A diminutive of Mary. 

MARK. From the Latin name Marcus, Gr. Ma/axog. 
The derivation is doubtful. The following guesses are 
found : 1. From Martius, the month of March, that is to 
say from having been born in that month ; 2. From marra, 
a mattock or pick-axe (thus, marra, maricus, Marcus) ; 
3. From marcus (root of marcidus), soft ; from /joaXxcc for 
jU/aAaxog ; 4. Contracted form of a word maricus, formed 
from mas, marts, the male kind ; 5. From a word mascus 
for maricus, like carmen for Gasmen; 6. Calmet translates 
the name ' polite, shining,' from H. marak. 

MARMADUKE. From A. S. mara-mihtig, very mighty 
or powerful. 

MARSALI. The Gaelic form of Margery. 

MARTHA. The Greek name Mo/afla. Littleton derives 
this name from a Syriac word signifying * lady ' (domina). 
Calmet translates the name * who becomes bitter/ from H. 
marar ; but he suggests also that the name may be from 
a Syriac word signifying * mistress ' or * who teaches.' 
Littleton is correct. It is a Syriac feminine formed from 
H. N13 = Lord. The nickname is Patty, doubtless originally 

MARTIN. From the Latin name Martinus j from Mar- 
tius ; from Mars, tis. 

MARY. Same as Maria ; from Miriam. The nick- 
names or pet-names are Mall, Moll, Molly ; by alliteration, 
Pal, Pol, Polly. 

MATE. An Anglo-Norman form of Matilda. 

MATILDE. A French form of Matilda, q. v. 

MATILDA. From the O. G. magd-hi'ld, noble 


virgin or maid. The nicknames are Maud, Maude, and 

MATTHEW. From the Greek name Marflaibc, Ma0- 
0a7oe, which, like Matthias, is a contraction of Mattathias, 
for irnriD, Mattathiah ; from mdttah-Yah, the gift of Jeho- 
vah. Conf. the name Theodore. The nickname of Matthew 
is Mat. 

MAUD, MAUDE. Found as baptismal names ; cor- 
rupted from Matilda. 

MAUDLIN. Corrupted from Magdalen. 

MAURICE. Some derive this name from Amalric, 
others from Mauritius ; but it is rather the reverse, for the 
island had its name from Prince Maurice. Menage, in his 
Table des Noms de Saints, writes 'Morge, Moris, Mauritius;* 
and in the Vocab. Hagiol. he has ' Mauritius, S. Maurice, 
nomme S. Morge, en quelques endroits de Touraine, et 
S. Merize en un canton du diocese de Lyon.' The name 
is probably from Fr. Du marais, from the marsh. 

MAY. Some derive this name from the flower, or from 
the Gaelic maith, good, pleasant, fruitful. It may also 
sometimes come from the old word may, a maid, from Norm. 
Sax. mai, i. q. mag, cognatus ; also virgo, Sco. mat, a maid, 
virgin. In records we have Le Mai, and in H. R. Le 

His daughter sheene ; 
The fayrest may she was that ever went. 

SPENSER, Shepherd's Calendar, November. 

The name has also been given to children born in the month 
of May, like Marchina to a child born in March. The 
Scottish name May is said to be from Margery ; the English 
name is no doubt often a contraction of Mary. 


MAXIMILIAN. A name said to be compounded of 
maxi?nus ) greatest, and the name .2Emilianus. 

MAYHOW. A Cornish form of Mayhew. 


MELITA. One of the names of a daughter of the Duke 
of Edinburgh (Victoria Melita), born 1876. So called from 
Melita, the ancient name of Malta. 

MELITTA. A female name derived from Gr. aeAtrra, 
jxeAfowx, a bee, II. p. 67 ; poet, 'honey.' See also MILICENT. 

MERCY. A common female name which explains itself. 
It has been Latinised Misericordia, which is found as an 
English name. 

MERDDHIN. The British original of Merlin. Some 
derive it from mar-din, hill by the sea. The Welsh din 
means var. border, limit, mount, fortified hill, camp, fort. 

MEREDITH. The English form of the Welsh name 

MEREDYDD. This is said to be the same name as 
Meriadek or Meiradwg, and also as the] Irish name 
O'Muireadwg, and the Scotch Mac Muireadaigh and Muir- 
eadhach. O'Reilly, however, renders the Irish word 
muireadach 'a sovereign, a lord j also a man's name, Morogh.' 
It means rather l admiral,' lit. protector of the sea ; from 
muir the sea, eadhach protector. I derive the British 
name from mawreddwg, mawreddig, magnificent, great, 
from mawr, great. 


MERLIN. The English form of the British name 
Merddhin. Probably derived through the French. 

MI AH. Found as a baptismal name. Abbreviated 
from Jeremiah. 


MICHAEL. The Scripture name, in H. bfcO'D, Miykhael, 
from miy-k'-El, who [is] like God. The nickname is Mike. 

MICHEIL. The Gaelic form of Michael. 

MIGUEL, MIHAL. Cornish forms of Michael. 

MIKIEL. An Anglo-Norman form of Michael. 

MILDRED. A female name, from A. S. mild-red, mild 
in counsel. The nicknames or pet-names are Mil and Milly. 

MILES. Some render this name ' crusher.' Arthur 
derives it from L. millium, a kind of grain ; but he adds, 
' Some think it a contraction of Michael.' Lower says 
of the surname Miles, 'From Milo, a not unusual personal 
name among the Normans, oftener perhaps a corruption of 
Michael, through Mighell;' and he adds, 'In some districts 
Michaelmas is commonly called Milemas.' I derive Miles 
from Milesius (not the classical name), Latinised from the 
Irish mile, milead, a soldier, a champion ; Gaelic milidh, a 
hero, a renowned person.' I find I am confirmed in this by 
Dr. MacDermott in the Annals of Ireland, in a note on the 
name Breogan. The last-named author, however, states 
that the Old Irish Maolmordha (a favourite name of the 
Chiefs of the O'Reillys) has been Anglicised to Myles or 

MILICENT. A female name, which in Latin is found 
written Melicentia, Melissa, and Mellitta. Mr. Arthur makes 
Melicent, Milicent, a French name ; and he translates it 
'honey-sweet.' It comes from the Gr. peXHTaa., which 
signifies both a bee and honey. Melissa was the name of 
the daughter of Melissus, king of Crete, and sister of 
Amalthaea, who nursed Jupiter with goat's milk. She was 
the first that found out the making of honey, which gave 
the poets occasion to feign her to be turned into a bee. 


Melissa was also a mystic name of the moon. Schol. ad 
Find. Py. 4, 106 ; Serv. ad Virg. ^En. i. 434. 

MILLESANT. Another spelling of Milicent, q. v. 

MILLY. A male baptismal name derived from Emilius, 
q. v. In France it is also a female name. As a female 
pet-name it is sometimes derived from Mildred, q. v. 

MINA. A female name abbreviated from Wilhelmina, 
or from the English form Williamina. 

MINELLA. A diminutive of Mina. 

MINCE. Found as a male baptismal name, perhaps 
from Fr. mince, thin, slender, small. 

MIND WELL. A male name found in the Scarborough 
parish records. The name explains itself. But compare the 
Scripture Zuccar, signifying ' mindful,' pr. u. of several men. 

MINERVA. Found as a female baptismal name. Conf. 
N. Q. 5th S. x. 376. So named from Minerva, goddess of 
wisdom, war, and all the liberal arts. The name, according 
to Quintilianus (1, 4, 6), was formerly Menerva, which is 
thought to be from meneo or meno, for moneo, to advise. 
Littleton gives ' menervo, moneo, antiqua vox ; unde promt" 
nervat, monet, in Saliari carmine, Seal., et Menerva ap. vett. 
quae postea Minerva.' 

MIR A. The same as Myra. 

MIRIAM. A female name. The Scripture name, in 
H. D^D, Miryam, the etymology of which is doubtful. 
Fuerstius translates it 'betriibte, ungliickliche,' the sad, 
the unfortunate one; Tregelles, 'their contumacy;' others, 
'their rebellion;' from mardh, to rebel; or 'star of the sea,' 
which is absurd, because mar is not a star, but a drop. The 
Greek forms of Miriam are Ma^tap and Ma/?/a, whence 
the English Maria and Mary. 


MISERICORDIA. This occurs as a female name in 
North Yorkshire in the middle of the seventeenth century. 
It has no doubt been Latinised from the name Mercy. 

MODDY. Found as a female baptismal name, perhaps 
a pet-name of the name Modesty. 

MODESTY. Found as a baptismal female name among 
the Puritans in England. It may be compared with the 
name of a Roman martyr, Modestus, and also with the 
Scripture name Bilhan, signifying ' modest.' 

MOIRE. A Gaelic form of Mary. 

MOIRIS, GILLE MOIRE. Gaelic forms of Maurice. 

MOLLY. A baptismal name derived from Mary. 

MONICA. A female name. It may be from It. monaca, 
a nun ; or a feminine formed from its root, L. monachus, a 

MOR. A frequent name of women ; signifies a fine or 
majestic woman. Annals of Ireland. 

MORDECAI. The Scripture name, in H. ^TID Mord'- 

khay, which Tregelles derives from the Persian tC^T*) 
little man; or from the name TTiD, Merodach, worshipper of 

MORE. A Welsh name derived from mawr, great. 

MORGAN. Some translate this name 'by the sea,' 
or ' sea-dweller,' or * seaman ; ' doubtless from Welsh 
mor the sea, gan bringing forth. Dixon, who at first 
translates the name Morgan 'by the sea,' in the Supplement 
thinks 'big head' better, and refers to the Scottish king 
Canmore (Ceann-mhor). But the name would seem to have 
been corrupted from Morgant, q. v. 

MORGANT. A British name, derived from ?nor-cant t 
a sea-brink. It may mean one living in such a situation. 


Dr. Pughe says Morgant is a very common name of men, of 
which Pelagius has been given as a translation. 

MOSES. From Moutnjg, the Greek form of nttfD, 
Mosheh, which Fuerstius translates * herausfiihrer, retter,' 
t. e. out-drawer, deliverer. Salmasius derives the name 
from the Coptic moousi, captus ex aqua (moou water, si 
from, or to take or draw, says the Rev. A. Jones). Miil- 
lerus gives mooau soot, servatus ex aquis. Salmasius and 
Miillerus are confirmed by Josephus and Jones, only the 
latter writes * Egyptian moo water, and ouie taken or saved 
out of.' 

MOSSY. An Anglo-Norman form of Moses. 

MOSS. A Jewish corruption of Moses. 

MUIRDHEACH or MUIREACH. The Gaelic origin 
of Murdoch. The same as Muireadhach, q. v. 

MUIRE. In Scripture, the Gaelic form of Mary. The 
other forms are Moire and Mairi. 

MUIREADHACH. An old Irish name equivalent to 
* admiral;' from muir the sea, eadhach protector. Dr. Mac- 
dermott says the name has been Anglicised to Morogh and 

MUIRE AL. The Gaelic form of Marion. It is a 
diminutive of Muire, in Scripture a form of Mary. 

MUNGAN. Some dictionaries give this name as the 
Gaelic form of Mungo, but they also write it Mungo. 

MUNGO. A name derived from Mwyngu or Munghu, 
the subsequent name of the Pictish saint Kentigern. It 
may be derived from mwyn, tender, kind, mild, gentle, 
courteous, affable, with the addition of og, as a diminutive. 

MTJRCHA. A Gaelic form of Murdoch. See MUIR- 


MURDOCH. The English form of Muirdheach. 

MURIEL, MERIEL. Littleton derives this female 
name from Gr. pvpov, which is rendered 'a liquid perfume 
or oil, ointment, any sweet ointment.' Others say from 
puppoc,, myrrh, a plant like myrrh ; but if so it probably 
came through the A. S. myrre, murre. It is found written 
Muriell, Meriall, Meriel, Maryell ; and as a surname 
Merrill, Mirihel, Miriel, Myrill, Muryell, and Muriel ; and 
is no doubt derived from Muireal, a Gaelic diminutive of 
Muire, t. e. Mary. 

MUSIDORA. A female name. From Gr. p>u<ro Iwpw, 
' gift of the Muses.' Miss Yonge says it was one of the 
fashionable soubriquets of the last century, and as such 
figures in Thomson's Seasons. 

MYCHEL. A Cornish form of Michael. 

MYLES. Another orthography of Miles. 

MYRA. A female name. The termination of some 
other Christian name ; or from Gr. u,vppa,, myrrh. 


NANCY. A baptismal name formed from Nan, for 

NANTY. A Scottish form of Antony. 

NAOMI. The Scripture name, in H. DJ, Naomi, 
signifying my pleasantness. 

NAPKIN. A baptismal name signifying little Nap 
that is, Napoleon. 

NAPOLEON. Found several times as a baptismal name. 
From the French name Napoleon, properly Napoleone, 
which has been translated 'of the new city.' But this is 


probably a guess, unless indeed Ajaccio was ever called 
Napoli in contradistinction to the ancient town of Adjacium, 
which stood on rising ground above the present site. The 
probable meaning of the name is ' lion of the wood ; ' from 
Gr. Atwv a lion, vaTrtj var. a wooded valley, a valley between 
mountains, a mountain glade, a thicket, grove, wood, forest, 
ravine. The nickname is Nap. 

NATHAN. The Scripture name, in H. fru, Nathan, 
signifying 'given.' 

NATHANIEL. The Scripture name, in H. Iwna, 
N'thanel, from n'than-El, given of God, or gift of God. 

NEACAL. The Gaelic form of Nicol, i. e. Nicholas. 

NEHEMIAH. The Scripture name, in H. iron:, 
N'hhemyah, from n'hhem-Yah, whom Jehovah comforts 
that is, aids. 

NELLIE, NELLY. Baptismal names derived from 
Ellen, and sometimes from Helen. 

NEPTUNE. Found as a baptismal name. A corre- 
spondent of N. Q. (3rd S. 541) says 'Neptune is the crest, 
as well as the Christian name, in families bearing my name. 
At the baptism of an infant relative some years years ago 
in Dublin, exception was taken to this name by the clergy- 
man, when asked to give it to the child, on the score of its 
Pagan savour. His scruples gave way, however, on being 
informed by an uncle of the babe (then present) that he was 
himself a ' case in point in favour of the ceremony being 
proceeded with, as his baptismal name was Neptune.' 
Another correspondent of the same journal (5th S. x. 376) 
speaks of a distinguished military officer whose second name 
was Neptune, from his having been born aboard a troop-ship 
or transport of that name. There are several suggestions 


as to the derivation of the classical name. Varro derives 
Neptunus from nubo (to cover), quod mare terras abnubat ; 
Cicero thinks it was originally Nuptunus, from nuptus, 
marriage ; Scaliger derives it from YtTfTw, to wash ; others 
from Japheth (riS)" 1 ), signifying widely-extending, by dropping 
the * and prefixing a ; or from Naphtuhim, pr. n. of an 
Egyptian nation (Gen. x. 13 ; I. Ch. xi., which Bochart 
(Phaleg. iv. 29) compares with Gr. Ntipfly^, the wife of 
Typhon, and, according to Plutarch (De Iside, p. 96, ed. 
Squire), the extreme limit of the earth washed by the sea, 
which opinion, says Tregelles, has been adopted by J. D. 
Michaelis, who understands this region to be situated to the 
east of Pelusium ; but, as Tregelles adds, 'all this is very 

NESTOR. Found as a male baptismal name. So called 
after Ntyrup, renowned among the Grecian chiefs for his 
eloquence, justice, and prudence. Dr. Pape, quoting 
Curtius, Etym. i. 278, says Nestor means * one who has 
returned home.' It may come from a compound, voue-trrtpEoe, 

NIAL. An Irish name, found written Niall and Neill. 
O'Reilly gives Nial as a man's name, and nial, a champion ; 
and neal is noble. But I take it that these names have been 
corrupted from Nigel, q. v. 

NIALL. The Gaelic form of Niel. 

NICHOLAS. From the Latin name Nicolaus, from the 
Gr. NixoAaoe, signifying 'conqueror of the people.' The 
nickname is Nick. 

NICIA. A female name derived from Gr. 

NIEL. An Anglo-Norman form of Nigel. 


NIGEL. A name derived from L. nigellus, somewhat 
black; a diminutive of niger. 

NIGIL. Another form of Nigel. 

NIMROD. Found as a baptismal name. The Scripture 
name, in H. TIDJ, Nimrodh, signifying rebel.' 

NINIAN. A baptismal name derived from St. Ninian 
(in Irish Ringan), a prince of Cambrian origin. The name 
may be etymologically connected with the name Nennius ; 
viz. from the Gaelic naomh as an adjective, holy, pious, 
devout ; as a noun, a saint, a holy person. 

NITA. A female name derived from Annita, a diminu- 
tive of Ann. 

NOAH. Found as a baptismal name. The Scripture 
name, in H. ni3, Noah, signifying * rest.' 

NOAL, NOALE, NOALL, NOELL. Cornish forms of 

NOEL. From the French name Noel, so named from 
Noel, Christmas, from being born on the day of that festi- 
val. In Latin it is found written Noelius and Natalis. 

NOLA. A female name said to have arisen from an 
attempt to pronounce the name Finnguala, i. e. Fionnghuala. 

NORMAN. A name signifying * one from Normandy.* 
It is found Latinised Normannus 

NORA, NORAH. Irish female names corrupted from 
Onora, from the English name Honora. As an English name 
Nora may sometimes be an abbreviation of Leonora. 

NO WELL. A Cornish form of Noel. 

NYNIAN. Another spelling of Ninian. 



OBADIAH. The Scripture name, in H. mTO, Obhad- 
hyah, from ebheadh-Yah, servant or worshipper of Jehovah. 
The nicknames are Nobs and Nobbs. 

OCTAVIUS. The Latin name, signifying ' the eighth,' 
i. e. the eighth son in order of birth. 

ODO. Dr. MacDermott says the Celtic name Aodh has 
been Anglicised into Hugh, and Latinised var. Hugo, 
Aedus, Aedanus, Aidus, and Odo. But see OTHO. 

OLIVE. A female name derived (perhaps through the 
French) from L. olivia, the olive-tree, an emblem of peace. 

OLIVER. From Fr. olivier, an olive-tree, from root of 
Olive, q. v. The nickname is Noll. 

OILBREIS. The Gaelic form of Oliver. 

OLCOBHOBHAIR. An Irish name which may var. 
signify pleasure, avarice, covetousness ! 

ONESIPHORUS. The classical 'Ovijcnp&poe, signifying 
* bringing help,' from ovijtng, aid, &c. 

ONESIMUS. So called from Onesimus, Philemon's 
servant, of whom Paul wrote ; in Gr. 'Ovijo-fyu-c, signifying 
useful, profitable, advantageous. Onesimus was the name 
of a Macedonian nobleman, treated with great kindness by 
the Roman emperors, and who wrote an account of the life 
of the Emperors Probus and Carus. 

ONORA. An Irish female name derived from the 
English name Honora, q. v. 

OPHELIA. This name has been rendered serpent, from 
o4>*e. It is more probably from cypetafa, help, assistance, 
succour, support ; poet. 


ORA. Found as a baptismal name. From Ora, name of 
Hersilia (who married Romulus) as a goddess, Ov. Met. 
xiv. 851 ; or an abbreviation of Orabel, q. v. 

ORABEL, GRABBLE. From L. orabilis, from oro, to 

ORSON. A male name derived, like the Italian Orso, 
or the diminutive Orsino, from L. ursus, a bear. Conf. the 
Roman diminutive Ursino, and the French Ursin. 

OSCAR. From the O. G. name Oskar, from os-ger y 
very renowned. 

OSMUND. Some translate this name * house-peace.* 
Wachter renders it ' excellent, gallant, brave man (os-mund}.' 

OSWALD. From 0. G. os-walt, illustrious magistrate, 
prefect or administrator ; * tutor egregius ' says Wachter. 

OSWIN. Skinner makes this name a Saxon compound 
signifying * beloved by his house or family.' It seems to 
be etymologically the same as the Old German name Otwin, 
which Wachter translates 'acquisitor divitiarum,' i. e. one 
who acquires riches (ot-wiri). 

OTHO. Some translate Otho 'happy/ and Otto 'rich ;' 
but they would seem to be the same name, for Otho of 
Freysingen, son of Leopold, Margrave of Austria, and of 
Agnes, daughter of the Emperor Henry IV., is also called 
Otto. It was the surname of a Roman emperor, and of one 
of the Roscian family; and in Plutarch is found written 
*00wv. It comes from O. G. od t excelling, happy, fortu- 

OWEN. Some derive this from the Irish name Eogan, 
signifying ' youth.' Camden thinks it is corrupted from 
Eugenius (see EUGENIA). Dr. Chalmers says, " Uuen 
seems to be the well-known name of Owain, signifying 


'apt to serve or minister,' and appearing under this form 
in the Welsh MS. Chronicle of the Saxons in the British 
Museum. One of the British Reguli of Strathcluyd was 
named Ueii or Huen." 

OWEIN. An Anglo-Norman form of Owen. 

OWST. A provincial corruption of the name Augustus. 

OZIAS. Found as a male name. From 'Oiae, the 
Greek form of Uzziah, q. v. 


PlDRUIG, PAIRIG. Gaelic forms of Peter. 

PAIN. An old name derived from L. paganus, a country- 
man, a peasant. 

PAMELA. A female name. It would seem that the 
Pamela of Pope in his Epistle IV. to Miss Blount, with the 
Works of Voiture, in 1717, is a character totally distinct 
from the Pamela of Richardson. Mr. J. T. Buckston says 
Horace Walpole writes, 2nd June, 1759, 'Loo is mounted 
to its zenith ; the parties last till one and two in the 
morning. We played at Lady Hertford's last week, the last 
night of the lying-in, till deep into Sunday morning, after 
she and her lord were retired. It is now adjourned to 
Mrs. Fitzroy's, whose child the town calls Pam-ela.' Now, 
if the pronunciation had been Pamela, the point of the 
joke would have been missed, for it alludes to the knave 
card called pam in the game of loo, referred to in the begin- 
ning of the letter, and Fielding's Joseph Andrews is intended 
as a parody on Richardson's heroine. Both names are 
Greek ; Pope's means ' all cheeks and breasts,' and Richard- 
son's ' tuneful.' The first name therefore is from irax all, 


and juojAov an apple, or any fruit resembling it hence the 
cheeks and breasts of females ; and the latter from Tfacv and 
p,sAoe, a song, melody. Conf. N. Q. 2nd S. ix. 305, 394. The 
nickname is Pam. 

PAMELIA. A corruption of Pamela. 

PANCRAS. In one town of Devonshire parents have 
had a fancy for christening their boys Pancras, after the 
youthful patron of their church. The name in Greek means 
4 all head,' perhaps ' very wise.' 

PARNELL. A female name corrupted from Petronilla. 

PASCO, PASCOE. A Cornish variation of Pascal, an 
old French baptismal name first imposed on those born at 
the season of Pasche or Easter. 

PATIENCE. Found as a male as well as a female name. 
Conf. N. Q. 6th S. iv. 168. The name explains itself. A 
correspondent of N. Q. 6th S. iv. 356, says of Sir Patience 
Ward, Lord Mayor of London, 1680-1, ' In some memoirs 
which he is said to have left of his own life he gives the 
following account of the origin of his baptismal name. His 
mother having had six sons, the father began to think the 
family increased too fast for his estate, and he made a vow 
that if there was another son he would call him Patience. 
Another son was born, and, though it was tried to persuade 
him from doing so by his friends, he kept his word, and 
gave him the name at his baptism. Sir Patience had a 
great-nephew called after him, who had a son named Pa- 
tientius. Conf. also the name St. Patiens, of Lyons. 

PATRICIUS. Found as a baptismal name. The Latin 
name ; from patricius, in Rome a descendant of those who 
were created senators in the time of the Kings; from pater, 
a father. 


PATRICK. From the Latin name Patricias, q. v. 

PAUL. A name derived from the Scripture name 
HayAog, signifying small (in stature). 

PAULET. A diminutive of Paul. 

PAULIN. From the Roman name Paulinus, derived 
from Paulus. See PAUL. 

PAULINE. A French name derived from the Roman 
name Paulina, the feminine of Paulinus. See PADLIN. 

PEADAR. The Gaelic form of Peter. 

PEDYR. The Cornish form of Peter. 

PELL. A male name derived from Peregrine. 

PENALABEE. A female name. Corrupted from 

PENELOPE. The Greek name IhjytAoTnj, in Homer 
frequently Hyy short eta, and in the Doric dialect naveAwa. 
Some render it * female weaver ' (textrix) ; others derive 
it from TTijva a web, and AOTTOC a garment, because the wife 
of Ulysses was the best weaveress ; or from -rnjvfAo^, a 
variegated species of duck (Anas Penelope), because, being 
exposed by her parents, Penelope was brought up by these 
birds ; or because she was fond of them, and carefully fed 

PENTECOST. This is frequently found as a baptismal 
name, sometimes of males, sometimes of females. It was 
especially in use in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and is 
even now found in Cornwall. It comes from Gr. Trerrjjxoo-nj, 
the 50th (day) ; f. e. the 50th day after the resurrection of 
the Saviour. 

PERCIVAL. An old male baptismal name mentioned 
by Camden ; derived from a local name in Normandy. It 
is found Latinised Percivallus. 


PERCY. A name derived from Perci, a parish and 
canton near St. Lo, in Normandy. 

PERE. An Anglo-Norman form of Peter. Conf. the 
French name Pierre. 

PEREGRINE. From L. peregrinus, an alien, stranger, 
foreign. It squares with the Scripture name Balaam, i. e. 
non populus ; and with the surnames Gumming, Newco- 
men, and Alman. 

PERES, PERREZ. Anglo-Norman forms of Peter. 

PERRONET. A double diminutive of Pierre, the French 
form of Peter. 

PERTHANY. A baptismal name often found in 
Hertfordshire. One writer suggests that it may be from 
L. pertenuis, very slender. It has been more probably 
corrupted from the Scripture place-name Bethany. 

PETER. From the Scripture name Per og, signifying a 
rock, properly a stone. Conf. the Hebrew name Zur. 

PETRONILL. Same as Petronilla. 

PETRONILLA. An old female name ; an Italian 
diminutive formed from Pietro, i. e. Peter. 

PHCENIS. A female name. A probable corruption of 
Venus, q. v. 

PHALIS. A female name derived from Phalis, the 
priestess of Juno at Argos ; from 4>aAog, white, shining, 

PHARAOH. Found as a male baptismal name. From 
$apaw, the Greek form of the Scripture name, in H. rWiB, 
Paroh, which has been var. translated ' son of the sun,' 
' mouth of the sun,' ' voice of God,' and ' sun ' only ; 
from the Coptic ph-re (in the Theban dialect pi-re}. The 
proper meaning of the name is * the king,' from <p-wpo, in 



Coptic v-ovpo. See also Tregelles's Gesenius, referring to 
Josephus, Antiq. viii. 6, sec. 2 ; Jablonski Opusc. ed. te 
Water, i. 374 ; Scholz, Gram. ^Egypt. p. 12, 14 ; Kose- 
garten, De Prisca -ZEgyptiorum Literature,, p. 17. 

PHELIM. The Irish pronunciation of the name Feidh- 
lim or Feidhlimidh, which Cormac translates 'great good- 
ness.' O'Reilly renders feidhilmidh f everlasting good.' 

PHEMIE. A Scottish form of Euphemia, q. v. 

PHIDADELPHIA. A female name sometimes derived 
from the American city ; perhaps sometimes from its Greek 
origin, signifying ' brotherly affection.' 

PHILEMON. An old male name. The classical name 
$jAijiu,wv ; formed from ptAija/, to love. 

PHILIBERT. A name derived from the 0. G. name 
Philobertus, Filiberthus ; from vtel-brecht, very distinguished 

PHILIP. Properly Philipp. From the Greek name 
OiAiTTTroc, signifying fond of horses. It is found as a female 
name in Cornwall. The nickname is Phil. 

PHILIPPA. A female name formed from Philip. 

PHILIPPINA. A diminutive of Philippa. 

PHILLIS. An old female baptismal name, derived from 
the Greek Phyllis, name of a countrywoman introduced in 
Virgil's Eclogues, and of a nurse of Lycurgus, King of 
Thrace, and of a nurse of the Emperor Domitian. From 
puAA<g for puAae, a green branch covered with leaves, a leaf, 
foliage, a heap of leaves ; in Herod. 8, 24, a bed of leaves. 
In one instance (mentioned in N. Q. 5th S. i. 357) the 
name Phillis has been corrupted from Felicia 

PHINEAS. The Scripture name, in H. Drws, Piynhhas, 
from piy-ri'hhos [het A], mouth of brass. 


PHOEBE. From the Greek name Qolfa, a name of 
Diana or the moon ; from <po//?oe, clear, pure, bright ; or 
formed from Qoifloe (Phoebus, Apollo), source of light ; from 
same root. 

PHYLIP. A Welsh form of Philip. 

PIERCE, PIERS. Names derived, like the surnames 
Pearce, Pears, Pearse, from Peter ; or say from Peter's. 

PIETY. A name used by the Puritans, and still 
sometimes found in England. See N. Q. 6th S. iv. 357. 
It explains itself. Conf. the Italian name Pio, signifying 
pious, religious, devout. 

PIRERS, PIRRES. Anglo-Norman forms of Peter. 

PLATO. Found as a male baptismal name. So called 
after the celebrated Athenian philosopher, who had his 
name from the size of his shoulders ; from tfAarys, broad, 

P6L. The Gaelic form of Paul. 

POLEXENA or POLYXENA. A female name, 
derived from Polyxena, daughter of Priam and Hecuba, 
celebrated for her beauty and accomplishments j from 
tfoAu^evoe, very hospitable ; lit. having or entertaining 
many guests ; hence Polixenes, Prince of Bohemia, in 
Winter's Tale. 

POSTHUMOUS. A male name derived from Post- 
humius, name of several Roman nobles ; from posthumus, 
born after the father's death that is to say, after (post) he 
is under the ground (humus). 

POSTREMA. A correspondent of N. Q. (5th S. vi. 217) 
says he is personally acquainted with a family of a number of 
children in which one of the daughters was called Postrema, 
" for," said the Quaker gentleman who suggested this name, 


" if not the last, she ought to be." Compare the American 
female baptismal name Ultima. 

POUL. The Anglo-Norman form of Paul. 

PRISCA. A female name derived from L. priscus, old, 
ancient, old-fashioned. 

PRISCILLA. This name must have been formed from 
a word priscilla, which would signify ' somewhat old,' a 
diminutive of L. prisons, old, ancient. Mr. Arthur translates 
Priscilla 'little ancient dame.' The name shows the tyranny 
of godfathers and godmothers. 

PRUDENCE. A female name used by the Puritans, 
and still found in England ; from L. prudcntia, wisdom, 
prudence, discretion, knowledge. Conf. the Scripture name 
Bunah, of the same meaning. 

PTOLEMY. From the Greek name nroAe/AaToc, in 
Josephus oAofx-aToc ; which some ' translate warlike,' from 
TtToXtpos, poet, for -rroAe^oe, battle, fight, war. But the 
name may be from oAajw,/, oAojctal, Greek forms of 
Tolmai or Talmai, father-in-law of King David, which latter 
name Tregelles translates ' abounding in furrows.' 


QUENTIN. The same as Quintin, q. v. 

QUINTILIAN. From the Latin name Quintilianus, 
from the Roman praenomen Quintus, q. v. 

QUINTIN, QUINT YNE. From the Latin name Quin- 
tinus, formed from the name Quintus. 

QUINTUS. The Roman name, signifying 'the fifth,' 
z. e. the fifth son in order of birth. 




RABEGE. A female name corrupted from Rebecca. 

RACH ALL. The Gaelic form of Rachel. 

RACHEL. From Pa%^, the Greek form of the Scripture 
name, in H. bm, Rahhel, usually translated 'a ewe' (Arab. 
rakhil, rikl, a female lamb). Fuerstius translates the name 
' mutterschaft,' i. e. motherhood, maternity 

RACH ELL. Another spelling of Rachel. 

RAIBERT. A Gaelic form of Robert. 

RALPH. A name corrupted from Randolph or its root 

RANDAL. A name corrupted from Rando ^h. 

RANDOLPH. Properly Radolph, the s< ^ as the 
German names Radulph, Radolf, Hroadolf, Rudt Iph J frora 
O. G. rad-ulph, help or counsel. The nickname ife Rann. 

RAOF, RAOUL. Anglo-Norman forms oi Ralph, 
Rolph. , 

RAONALD, RAONULL. The Gaelic ft rma of 
Ronald, q. v. 

RAPHAEL. The Scripture name, in H. bai, fi'phael, 
from raphd-El, healed of God, or whom God healed- 

RAYMOND. A name derived from the O. & J^- H - & 
name Rammund ; from ram-mund, a strong man. 

REBECCA. The Scripture name, in H. npii , Ribhkah, 
signifying a rope with a noose ; from Arab, rob '& a ^5 which 
Tregelles says is not unfit as the name of a girl wh 10 ensnares 
men by her beauty. The nicknames or pet-nam < es are Beck> 
Becky, and Reka. 



REGINA. A female name, prcJmbly signifying queen 
(L.) Arthur translates it * queeiilike.' 

REGINALD. From ths Old German name ; from 
regin-ald, noble hero. Meidinger translates ragin, regin, 
recken, held, machtigei- . ' and Wachter renders recken, 
' posse, valere ; also hh rO es.' 

RENEE. Foun<] as an English female name. From the 
French name Rep. e , feminine of Rene ; like the Italian 
name Renato, der; ve( i f rom L. renatus, renewed; born, risen, 
or begun again. 

REPENTANCE. A female name which explains itself. 
Conf. the Scripture name Nahamani, which has been ren- 
dered ' repenting,' also * merciful.' 

RETTA. A female name abbreviated from Margaretta. 
Conf. the I innish name Reta, of a similar origin. 

REUBI ^ The Scripture name, in H. ptn, R'ubhe'n 
which St Jerome translates * son of vision ; ' Simonis, * son 
of ( Div .iie) respect ; ' Tregelles, ' see,' . e. ' behold a 

RE A 'NOLD. A name derived from the Old German 
name ieinhold ; from rein-hold, pure grace, favour, or 
affectir n- Others say Reinhold is from Reginald, q. v. 

RH- jgE. An old British name. It is found Latinised 
Rhesus, . an ^ j s probably derived from 'A^g, Mars, the god 
of war. 

RHO DA. A female name derived from Med. L. rhoda, 
from Gr. po ^ Vi a roge . 

RICH ARD. From the O. G. name Reichart, Richart ; 
from reic/A.jiart, very powerful, strong, or rich. The nick- 
name is Die ,,k > and^ as a diminutive, Dickon. 

RICHAR.T. An Anglo-Norman form of Richard. 


RICHOARD. Found as a female name. Same as 
Richard, q. v. 

RITA. A female name of Italian origin ; abbreviated 
from Margarita. 

RIZARD. An Anglo-Norman form of Richard. 

ROBART. Another spelling of Robert, q. v. 

ROBERT. A name derived from the O. G. Ruadpert, 
Ruopreht, from rat-brecht, illustrious in counsel or illustrious 
councillor. The nicknames are Rob, Bob, Bobby, Hobb, 
Dobb, Dobbie, Dobby. 

ROBERT1NA. A female name derived from Robert. 

ROBIERS. An Anglo-Norman form of Robert. 

ROBIN. A diminutive of Rob, the nickname of Robert. 

ROB IN A. A female name formed from Robert ; others 
say contracted from Robertina. 

RODERICK. A name derived from the Old German 
name Roderic or Roderich, from rad-reich, rich or power- 
ful in counsel. Meidinger gives also the inverse German 
name Richrot. The nickname is Roddy. 

RODOLPH. Another spelling of Rudolph. See 

ROESE, ROESIA. Different spellings of Rohais. 

ROHAIS. A baptismal name derived, like the surname 
Rous, Rouse, Rowse, from O. Fr. rous, red ; from L. rufus. 

ROGER. Some translate this name ' spear of fame ; ' 
others, 'spear-red.' It comes from the Old German 
name Rotger, var. Ratgar, Rudiger, Ruedeger, Rodiger, 
Hruodiger, Hruodiker, the Hrothgar of Beowulf; from 
rat-gar, a war councillor ; or rat-gar, prompt in counsel. 
The nickname is Hodge, doubtless originally Rodge. 

ROIBEART. A Gaelic form of Robert. 


ROLPH. A name, like Ralph, corrupted down from 
Randolph, q. v. 

ROLAND. Derived from the old Francic name, signi- 
fying 'illustrious countryman.' From A. S. rof illustrious, 
and land. Camden derives it from A. S. rod counsel, and 
land, q. d. counsellor to his country. By metathesis we 
have the Italian name Orlando. 

RONALD. The Scottish form of Reynold. 

ROSA. A rose (L.) 

ROSALIA. A female name formed from the name 

ROSAL1N, ROSALIND. A female diminutive formed 
from the name Rose. 

ROSAMUND. Some derive the name of Fair Rosamund 
from rosa mundi, the rose of the world ; or from rosa and 
A. S. mund, a mouth, ' from her rosy-coloured lips.' Both 
etymologies are objectionable, especially the latter, from 
being a hybrid. The name, which is found written Rosa- 
mond, Rosamunda, Rosemonde, is of Teutonic origin, having 
been formed from the old male name Hrosmund, softened 
down from Ruodmunt, same as the Old and Middle High 
German name Hrothmond (Icelandic Hrothmundr, Old 
Gothic Ratmund). Junius translates Ruodmunt 'red 
mouth;' Wachter, 'vir utilis et consultus.' The name is 
from ruod-munt for rad-mund, man for counsel, councillor ; 
or from rad-munt, protector in counsel. 

ROSE. A female name derived from L. rosa, a rose. 
The Romans sometimes called their sweethearts * rosa mea.' 

ROSEL. A name formed from Rose. 

ROSEMARY. Found as a female name. Formed from 
L. rosmarinus. 


ROSETTA. A diminutive derived from the name Rose, 
or from the Italian form Rosa. 

ROSETTE. A diminutive of Rose. 

ROSINA. A diminutive of the name Rose, or of the 
Italian form Rosa. 

ROTHA. Another orthography of Rhoda. Edith and 
Rotha were Coleridge's favourite names for women. 

ROWENA. A female name, which some consider to be 
of Saxon origin. Mr. Arthur derives it from D. rouw 
peace, A. S. rinnan to acquire ; but Lye does not so 
translate rinnan. Others derive it from the Welsh rhon- 
wen, white skirt. Pughe renders rhonwyn * white-tailed.' 

ROWLAND. Some translate this name ' peace of the 
country.' Verstegan says from D. row peace, and land 
peace-maker of his country. It is another form of the 
Francic name Roland, q. v. 

RUARIDH. The Gaelic form of Roderick and Rory. 

RUDOLPH. From root of Randolph for Radolph. 

RUTH. The Scripture name, in H. rm, Ruth, from 
r'uth, appearance, vision, fig. beauty. 

RUISEARD. The Gaelic form of Richard. 

RUPERT. Etymologically the same name as Robert, q. v. 

RYCHARD. A male name; and also found as a female 
name in one parish in Devon. It is merely another spelling 
of Richard. 


SABA. A correspondent of N. Q. (3rd S. iv. 369) 
quotes the following from Sydney Smith's Memoirs, vol. i. 
p. 22), touching the name given by the latter to his 


daughter. 'Being now in possession of a daughter, it 
becomes necessary to give her a name, and nobody would 
believe the meditations, the consultations, and the comical 
discussions we held on this important point.' At last he 
determined to invent one, and Saba was the result. Another 
correspondent of the same journal (3rd S. iv. 416) remarks, 
' Sydney Smith did not invent the name Saba ; he only 
feminized it. There are two saints so called in the Romish 
Calendar, one of whom has a basilica at Rome.' The name 
would seem to be from Saba, founder of the Sabeans, in 
H. no, S'bha, signifying * eminent.' 

SABARINA. Found as a female name. It is no doubt 
a corruption of the name Sabrina. 

SABINA. A female name derived from Sabina, wife of 
Adrian, celebrated for her private as well as her public 
virtues; one as chaste as a Sabine. 

SABRINA. A female name derived from the Latin 
appellation of the River Severn. Cuthbert Bede gives, as 
an instance of the name, Sabrina Sidney (the Shrewsbury 
orphan, named after the Severn), who was selected and 
educated to be the model wife of the eccentric Thomas Day, 
the author of Sandford and Merton.' 

SACH AIR, SACHAIRI. Gaelic forms of Zachary. 

SADRACH and SYDRACH were common male names 
in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. 
Corrupted from Shadrach, q. v. 

SALACIA. A female name. So called after Salacia, 
goddess of the sea, and wife of Neptune ; a name said to 
be derived from salum ciere, to move the sea. 

SALATHIEL. Found as a male name. Conf . Lodge's 
Illust. iii. 37, 2nd edit. Derived from SaAaflnjA, the Greek 


form of the Scripture name bnbttf, Sh'altiyel, which has 
been translated ' whom I asked for from God,' or * asked 
of God.' It means simply ' I asked God ' (shadlti-El}. 

SALOME. A female name. From SaA;//,ij, a Greek 
name derived from SaXo^y, i. e. Solomon. 

SAMPSON. From SapJ/cwv, the Greek form of the 
Scripture name, in H. pttfDttt, Shimshon, which Simonis 
translates sol eximius,' i. e. illustrious sun ; the Rev. A. 
Jones * splendid sun,' i. e. great joy and felicity ; Tregelles, 
' solar, like the sun ; ' and Fuerstius, ' sonnenahnlicher ' 
that is, one who resembles the sun (from sh&nesh, the sun). 

SAMUEL. From Sa/^ouijA, the Greek form of the 
Scripture name, in H. btfiDttf, Sh'muel, from sh'mu-El, 
heard of God. The nicknames are Sam and Sammy. 

SAMUELL. Another form of Samuel. 

SANDY. A Scottish name corrupted from Alexander. 

SAPPIRA. A female name derived from Gr. o-a^pg^oc, 
a sapphire ; or from H. shaphiyr, beautiful, whence Shaphir 
name of a town of Judaea. 

SARA. A female name derived from the Italian form 
of Sarah. 

SARAH. The Scripture name, in H. mttf, Sarah, which 
Fuerstius renders ' herrscheriu,' i.e. female ruler, governor; 
others say, 'princess, noble lady;' from sarah, to be leader, 
commander ; to fight.' The name appears to have been 
originally Sarai, signifying 'my princess;' and the Rev. A. 
Jones says the change in her name probably took place 
because of the honour God had purposed to confer upon 
her when, in Gen. xvii. 16, he said ' She shall become 
nations,' i. e. the mother of them. The nicknames are Sal 
and Sally. 


SAUL. The Scripture mime, ia H. ViNttt, Shaul, which 
Siraonis translates 'exoratus,' i. e. obtained by entreaty; 
and others, ' asked for.' 

SEBASTIAN. From 2 /3a<rrog, the Greek rendering 
of Augustus, and signifying 'to be venerated or reverenced, 
venerable.' Hence, by abbreviation, the name Bastien, and 
the nicknames Sib, Sibby. 

SECUNDUS. The Latin male name, signifying 'second,' 
i. e. the second in order of birth. 

SELAH. A male name derived from the Scripture 
name Selah or Shelah, in H. nbttf, Shelah, signifying a 
weapon, missile ; lit. sent, shooting forth. The Hebrew 
Sola is a rock (fig. of refuge), whence Selah, Sela (Petra), 
the chief city of the Edomites. 

SELICIA. A female name. Said to be an inverted form 
of Cecilia. 

SELINA. A female name derived, like the French 
Celine, from the Greek name SeAijyij, signifying the moon. 
Conf. the Scripture name Hodesh, signifying the new 

SEMPRONIUS. A male baptismal name at the present 
day, derived from the celebrated Roman name. Reinecius, 
in Inscript. cl. 1, n. 15, thinks the Sempronia Gens were so 
called quasi 2e[j,<p{ov<x,$, JEolic for 2ufj,<pova$, of one mind 
or will, unanimous ; or quasi 2ujpy.q>pova,$, masters of mind, 
prudent or modest gens. Conf. Forcellini, Lex. 

SENECA. A name derived from that of the celebrated 
philosopher of the Annaean family ; from senica, i. q. senex, 
ids, old ; Cassiodorus thinks Seneca may have been so 
named from being born with white hair ; and that in like 
manner he was called Annseus ab annis. 


SE6NAID. A Gaelic form of Janet. 

SE6RAS, SEORUS. Gaelic forms of George. 

SE6SAIDH. The Gaelic form of Joseph. 

SEPTIMIA. The female form of the Roman name 
Septimius, derived from Septimus. 

SEPTIMUS. A Latin name signifying * the seventh ' 
that is, seventh in order of birth. 

SERENA. A female name derived perhaps from Se- 
rena, a daughter of Theodosius, married to Stilicho, the 
general of that emperor ; from L. serenus, cheerful, quiet, 

SERVIUS. Found as a male baptismal name. Derived 
from the Roman name, one bearer of which was Servius 
Tullius, sixth king of Rome. He was the son of Ocrisia, 
by Tullius, a man slain in the defence of his country 
against the Romans. Ocrisia was given by Tarquin to 
Tonaquil, his wife, and she brought up her son in the 
king's family, and, to denote his slavery, added the name 
Servius to that which he had inherited from his father. 

SETH. A male name derived from the Scripture name, 
in H. nttf, Sheth, signifying * appointed.' Fuerstius writes 
the name S'et, and renders it ' kriegsgetiimmel,' i. e. war 
bustle or noise. 

SEUMAS. The Gaelic form of James. 

SEXTUS. A male name derived from the Roman name, 
signifying ' the sixth ' that is, the sixth in order of birth. 

SHADE. A male name derived from Shadrach. 

SHADRACH. Found as a male baptismal name in 
Worcestershire. Called after Shadrach, a name given to 
Hananiah, a companion of Daniel in the court of Babylon. 
Lorsbach derives it from the Persian ujjtij Shadrak, 


little friend of the king ; Bohlen, from *^jU,, Shadrah, 
rejoicing in the way, which Tregelles prefers, but which I 
do not. A nickname is Shade. 

SHARLOT. A female name corrupted from Charlotte. 

SHARON. A male name derived from p-jttf, Sharon, a 
plain country near the Mediterranean Sea, between Caesarea 
and Joppa, remarkable for the fertility of its fields and 
pastures. Some write 'Y'sharon,' which they translate 
plain, plain country, a great plain. Dr. Alexander, who 
prefixes the article, translates the name, * the plain.' 

SHEPHERDESS. A female name. The Tyne Mer- 
cury of 3rd November, 1829, gives a ' Shepherdess Speedy.' 
The name was no doubt derived from the occupation, like 
the male names Pastor and Le Pastur, found in the Hun- 
dred Rolls. 

SYDRACH. Another spelling of Sadrach. 

SIBILL. A female name, another spelling of Sybil, 
corrupted from Isabel. 

SIBILLAH. A female name, corrupted from Isabella. 

SIBLEY, SIBLIGHE. Female names corrupted from 


SIGISMUND. A male name. From the old name 
Sigismundus, var. Sigimund, Sigmund, Sigmundr ; from 
sieg-mund, man of victory, triumphant man. 

SILAS. A name corrupted down from Silvanus. 

SILENCE. A female name. In Lodge's Illust. (vi. 37, 
2nd ed.) appear Salathiel, son, and Patience, Temperance, 
Silence, and Prudence, daughters, of Temperance, wife of 
Sir Thomas Crew, Speaker temp. James I. and Charles I. 
Conf. the name Tacita, a goddess who presided over silence, 


to whom Numa, as some say, paid particular veneration; 
also the male name Tacitus. 

SILIS. The Gaelic form of Cicely. 

SILVAN US. From the Roman name Silvanus or 
Sylvanus ; also the appellation of a god of forests and fields; 
from silva, sylva, a forest, wood. Hence by corruption the 
name Silas (S*'Aaf). 

SILVESTER, SYLVESTER. A male name derived 
from L. Silvester, wild, found in a wood ; from silva, a wood. 
The Roman calendar has three saints named Silvester. 
The nickname is Sil. 

SIM. A Gaelic form of Simon. 

SIMON. A name of Norman introduction, corrupted 
from the Scripture name pynttf, Shimon (in English Simeon), 
which has been variously translated * one who hears and 
grants a petition,' ' favourable hearing,' ' gracious hear- 
ing,' and ' hearing with acceptance ;' from shama, to hear. 
The nickname is Sim. 

SIMS. A male name derived from Simon. 

SINDONIA. An old female baptismal name found in 
Hertfordshire. I have suggested in Notes and Queries that 
this name may have been corrupted and feminized from 
Sidonius, which occurs in the list of saints in Menage ; 
perhaps so called from Sidon ; and I have compared it with 
the name Medina Sidonia, i. e. the city of Sidon, in Spain. 
A correspondent of Notes and Queries says Sidonia or 
Sida, meaning a star, was a very common name given to 
females among the ancient Scandinavians. The name may 
also have been given to one born on the 'Feast of the 
Windy Sheet' (De Sacra Sindone). 

SINE. The Gaelic form of Jane. 


SISSIE. A female name corrupted from Cecilia. 

SIUBHAN. The Gaelic form of Judith. 

SOLAMH. The Gaelic form of Solomon. 

SOLOMON. The Scripture name, in Josephus and the 
New Testament SoAoawv, in H. nobttf, Sh'lomoh, signifying 
' peaceable.' 

SOMHAIRLE, SOMHLE. Gaelic forms of Samuel. 

SOPHIA. A name derived from Gr. o-o<p<a, knowledge, 
wisdom, prudence. The nickname is Sophy. 

SOPHIE. The French form of Sophia. 

SOPHONISBA. A female name derived from the 
daughter of Asdrubal, the Carthaginian, celebrated for her 
beauty. Fuerstius writes the name in Carthaginian n^iav, 
Ts'phoneeba, which he translates ' in you my protection.' 

SOPHRONIA. A female name derived from the Roman 
name, a feminine of Sophronius, formed from Sophron ; from 
ffwQpwv, sober, modest, discreet. 

STACY. An Irish name corrupted from Eustace ; but 
perhaps sometimes from Anastasia. 

STANISLAUS. A Slavonic name signifying 'the place 
of glory or fame' (slawa). The Bohemian form of the name 
is Stanislaw. 

STATIRA. A female name derived from Statira, a 
daughter of Darius, who married Alexander. 

STEAPHAN. A Gaelic form of Stephen. 

STEFNE. An Anglo-Norman form of Stephen. 

STEPHANA. An English female name derived from 

STEPHEN. From the Greek name Srs^avo^, signifying 
' a crown or garland.' 

STELLA. A female name signifying a star (L). 


STIGAND. A name derived from, or from the same 
root as, that of the semi-Danish Archbishop of Canterbury 
who crowned Harold ; viz. from A. S.stigand, part, of stigan, 
stigon, to climb. Cleasby gives the Icelandic Stigandi, a 
stepper, strider, a nickname, in Eyrbyggia Saga, as in the 
name Stigand. Stigr is also an Icelandic pr. n. 

SUSAN. The Scripture name, in Gr. Soucrav, in H. 
Shushan, which some translate ' rose,' because so rendered 
in the Chaldee Targurn. The Hebrew word is derived from 
the Arab. ^~i**i susan, a lily. The nicknames are Susie 
and Su, whence the diminutive Sukey. 

SUSANNAH. The Scripture name, in Gr. Soutravva 
(in H. Shushanah), from the Pers. <LLo:, Susanna, a lily. 

SWITHIN. An old name formerly written Switheahn, 
which Camden derives from A. S. swithe greatly, heagh 
high. It is the same with the O. and M. H. G. name 
Suithin, and is rendered illustrious by St. Swithin, Bishop 
of Winchester, who died A. D. 862. It is found Latinised 
Swithinus, and is also represented by Celsus and Exu- 

SYABELLA. A female name, corrupted from Isabella. 

SYBIL. An old name corrupted from Isabella. 


SYDNEY. A name corrupted from St. Denis, pro- 
nounced in French St. Nie. It is a favourite name 
with Israelites, some of whom trace it to the Scripture 

SYLVANUS. Another spelling of Silvanus, q. v. 

SYLVESTER. Another spelling of Silvester, q. v. 

SYLVIA. The Roman name ; a feminine of Sylvius. 
Sylvia was the name of Ilia, mother of Romulus. 



SYLVIUS. The Roman name, from sylva, a wood. 
Sylvius was the name of the brother of Ascanius, so called 
from being born in the woods. From him the kings of 
Alba were called Sylvii. 


TABITHA. A female name, derived from NmtD, Ta- 
bitha, the Aramaean name of a Christian female = H. zebia, 
a gazelle, and rendered in Greek by Aoptac. Calmet, who 
translates the name 'wild goat or kid,' says the Syriac word 
tabitha signifies 'clear-sighted.' 

TADHG. An Irish name signifying poet, philosopher. 

TAFFY. A Welsh form of David. 

TAM. A Scottish form of Thomas. 

TALBOT. A male name derived from talbot, in heraldry 
a term for a hunting dog. Bailey translates it 'a dog 
with a turned-up tail;' probably from A. S. tegl a tail, and 
butan ; but Lye renders butan var. ' praeter, extra, solum, 
tantum, sive.' The name is found Latinised Talbuttus. 
Dr. Johnson defines talbot 'a hound,' and says that it is 
Dome by the house of Talbot in their arms, which Mr. 
Lower denies. 

TAMAR. A female name, perhaps sometimes derived 
from Tamar, daughter-in-law of Judah, or a daughter of 
David, or of Absalom, in H. 1DM, tamdr, signifying palm, 
from tamdr, a palm-tree. The name has on one occasion 
been derived from that of a ship. A correspondent of 
N. Q. (6th S. iv. 336) says a former sergeant-major in his 
old regiment (6th Royal Warwickshire) was in the habit of 
giving his children names which he called 'appropriate;' 


and a son, being born on board the troop-ship Tamar, was 
duly christened George Washington Tamar. 

TAMASINE. A female name formed from Thomas. 

TAMHUS. A Gaelic form of Thomas. 

TAMLANE. A Scottish name derived from Thomas. 

TAMMIE. A name formed from Thomas. 

TAMMY. A female name derived from Thomas. 

male names ; same as Thomassine. 

TANCRED. A name derived from the Old German 
name Tauchrat or Dancharat ; from dank-rat, grateful 
counsel or councillor. 

TATE. A female name derived from the Anglo-Saxon 
personal name Tate, the same as the Icelandic Teitr, which 
Cleasby renders ' glad, cheerful (A. S. tdt, M. H. G. zeiz, 
dear, beloved).' Kemble says the name denotes gentleness, 
kindness, and tenderness of disposition. 

TEAGUE. A name corrupted from Tadhg, q. v. 

TEARLACH. The Gaelic form of Charles. 

TEBAUD. An Anglo-Norman form of Theobald. 

TEMPERANCE. A female name derived from L. 
temperantia, moderation, temperance. 

TENARD. An Anglo-Norman form of Stephen. 

TERENCE. From the Latin name Terentius. Ma- 
crobius (Sat. ii. 9) says the name of the Terentia Gens 
is derived by Varro from the Sabine word terenus, soft. 
Terentus was the appellation of a place in the Campus 
Martius at Rome, on the Tiber, where the ludi sceculares 
were celebrated. 

TERRY. A male name derived, like the French name 
Thierry, from Theodoric. 


TEWDWR. A Welsh form of Theodore. 

THADEUS, THADDEUS. From the L. Thadeus, Gr. 
aa~oe. Calmet says the name is derived from H. thodah 
or thadah, one who praises and confesses, from the verb 
jadah. Others make it an Aramaic name signifying 'praise; ' 
or translate it ' homo pectosus,' from Syriac in, tad, pectus ; 
but, as Dr. Smith observes, the true signification is * mamma ' 
(Eng. teat) ; conf. the H. shad, a breast, teat. 

THADY. Same as Tadhg. 

THALIA. A female name derived from Thalia, one of 
the Muses, who presided over festivals, and over pastoral 
and comic poetry ; from OaAia, exuberance of anything, 
joy, happiness, prosperity, festivity, a feast, a banquet. 

THEASTER. Found as an old baptismal name, said to 
mean God's star, from Qeoc and aarf^p. 

THEO. A male name derived from Theophilus or 
Theodore. Conf. the French surname Theo. 

THEOBALD. A name derived from the Old German 
Theudibald, from teut-bald y strong or bold leader. See 
THEODORIC. The nickname is Tib. 

THEODORA. A female name derived from Theodore. 

THEODORE. From the Latin name Theodorus, Gr. 
, signifying the gift of God ; from G>so$ God, and 
for Swpov. The nicknames are Tid, Tit. 

THEODORIC. It has been translated Dei contemplator 
sive divinorum speculator.' It is an old German name, from 
teut-reich, powerful lord, from tent lord, leader, prince (from 
deuten to rule, from deut, teut, the people), and reich. The 
nickname is Derrick. 

THEODOSIA. A female name formed from Theo- 


THEODOSIUS. The Latin name, in Greek QsoM<ms, 
signifying given by God ; from QSQQ God, and Socnog. 

THEOMARTYR. A male name, derived from Gr. 
QstpapTus, upog, God's witness. Conf. Eustath. Opusc. p. 2, 

THEOPHANIA. A female name, derived from Qeoyct.vir it 
Ion. 0o<pavia, signifying ' the noble appearance of God.' 

THEOPHILA. The female form of Theophilus. 

THEOPHILUS. From the Gr. name 0<fy>iAoe, signifying 
< a friend of God ; ' from QBO S God, &c. 

THERESA. The origin of this female name is doubtful. 
Antonio says it is found written Tarasia, and that there is a 
masculine Tarasius. Stephanus gives a Tapd<rios (Tarasius); 
and also a Tapacr/st, which he refers to the name of a vates, 
perhaps from rtip&ffici, divinatio. Others derive the name 
Theresa from Oij^aw, to hunt ; and it might even be the 
same as Threissa mentioned by Virgil, and Thressa referred 
to by Horace, the same as GpijWa, feminine of 0pj, Ionic for 
6pa, a Thracian. It might also be derived from Therasia, 
an island near Crete, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny ; or 
from Therasia, another island spoken of by the latter, first 
called Lipara and finally Hiera. But see also Antonio, 
Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus, ed. 1788, torn. 1, p. 160, No. 
80. The nickname is Tracy. 

THOLOMEU. An Anglo-Norman form of Bartholomew. 

THOMAS. According to some the name of the apostle 
Gwpxe is derived from a Syriac word of Hebrew origin, viz. 
from asn, tham, doubt, because of his doubting, and they 
say he was on that account called in Greek Al8v[Mc t 6. of 
two hearts. But the Hebrew tham (pi. thami) is a twin, 
and the Greek Didymus has the same signification ; and 


there is a tradition that the apostle, whose real name is said 
to have been Judas, was a twin-brother of Jesus, or that he 
had a twin-sister Lydia (Lysia?), the former being the 
most probable. Dr. William Smith says the word NDn, 
Thoma, means a twin; and so it is translated in John xi. 16, 
xxi. 2, o $I$V[J,OG ; and he adds, " In Cant. vii. 4, the name is 
simply Tham, exactly our ' Tom.' The frequency of the 
name in England is derived, not from the apostle, but from 
St. Thomas of Canterbury." 

THOMASIA. A female name formed from Thomas. 

THOMASINA. A female name derived from 

THOMASSINE, THOMAZINE. Female names formed 
from Thomas. 

TIB ALL A. A female name derived from Theobald. 

TIBAUD. An Anglo-Norman form of Theobald. 

TIBBIE. A female name corrupted from Elizabeth or 

TIBELDA. A female name derived from Theobald. 

TIBERIUS. A male baptismal name, derived from the 
celebrated Roman name ; so called from the river Tiber or 
Tiberis. The Latin name was usually written Ti. or Tib. ; 
as Ti. Gracchus. 

TIBOTTA. A female name derived from Theobald. 

TIGHEARNA or TIARNAN. A favourite Irish name 
amongst the O'Rourkes, from tighearna a lord, tiarna a 
lord, prince, ruler. 

TIMOTHIE. A female name derived from Timothy. 

TIMOTHY. A name derived from the Greek name 
, signifying ' honouring or worshipping God ;' from 
y to honour, &c. 


TITUS. From the Greek name Titos, signifying 
' honoured.' 

TOBIAS. A name derived from TaaftloLs, the Greek form 
of the Scripture name TOIto, Tobijah, from tobh-Yah, which 
has been variously rendered * God's goodness' and 'dis- 
tinguished of the Lord ' (say * of Jehovah ' ). 

TOBIE. A male baptismal name derived from Tobias. 

TOIRDEALBHACH, pronounced Torlogh. An old 
Irish name signifying a man of tower-like stature, from 
tor a tower, and dealbach. According to the Annals of 
Ireland it lias been sometimes Anglicised to Terence. 

TOLDEE. An Anglo-Norman form of Theodore. 

TOM. A baptismal name abbreviated from Thomas. It 
is found as a female name. 

TOMALTACH. An old Irish name signifying * a man 
of hospitality,' derived from tomailt, provisions. According 
to the Annals of Ireland it has been (sometimes ?) Anglicised 
to Thomas. 

T6MAS. A Gaelic form of Thomas. 

TO NT. An Anglo-Norman form of Antony. 

TOPSY. A modern female baptismal name. A corre- 
spondent of N. Q. says that, a short time before the baptism 
of one so named, the parents had borrowed from the village 
lending library Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

TORMAD. The Gaelic form of Norman. 

TOUME. An Anglo-Norman form of Thomas. 

derived from Trevelyan, an estate in Cornwall, from tre- 
vylgan, the dwelling of the seaman ; or from tre-vellin, the 
dwelling by the mill. 

TRIFHENA. Same as Tryphena. 


TRISTRAM. From O. G. treist-ram, strong in bold- 
ness (treist, dreist, bold). 

TRIX. A female name abbreviated from Beatrix. 

TRYCE. From Beatrice. 

TRYOPHENE. Another spelling of Tryphena. 

TRYPHENA. Not a very uncommon female name. 
St. Peter's Church, Worcester contains epitaphs of 
Mrs. Tryphosa Sanders, daughter of Mrs. Tryphena Hester 
(Conf. N. Q. 4th S. viii. 64). Mr. A. B. Grosart says of 
these two names, " Their source is in the Epistle to the 
Romans xvi. 12 : ' Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who 
labour in the Lord.' They were not at all unusual among 
the Puritan families of the Commonwealth, nor is the senti- 
ment that fetched names from Holy Scripture one needing 
defence ; " and Kitto says, ' Tryphena and Tryphosa were 
female disciples at Rome, who laboured to extend the 
Gospel and to succour the faithful. Their history is 
unknown, but from their names they were probably sisters.' 
The Greek name Tpt^suva may be from rp^ava, delicate. 

TRYPHOSA. A female name, in Greek Tf upwero, sig- 
nifying * living delicately.' See TRYPHENA. 

TUATHAL, pronounced Tua-hal. An old Irish name, 
signifying ' a man possessed of a large landed property ' or 
' a lordship,' from tuatha, territories. Annals of Ireland. 

TUBBY. A Cornish form of Thomas. 

TUDOR. The Anglicised form of the Welsh Tewdwr, a 
name derived from Theodore. 

TURSTAN. An old name. The same as the O. and 
M. H. G. names Turstan, Thurstan, Turstein, signifying 
f Thor's stone;' fig. 'Thor's defence;' from A. S. stdn, O. N. 
steinn. It is found Latinised Turstanus. Thor is found 


in many old names, as Thurgar, Thurgood, Thurkettle, 
Thurkle, Thurtle. 

TYBAL, TYBALLA. Female names derived from 

TYBALT. A male name derived from Theobald. 


UALGAEG. An old Irish name, said to signify 
' famous and fierce (warrior)/ from uaill famous, garg fierce. 

UCHTRED. An old name. The same as the personal 
name Utred or Uhtred, probably from O. G. ot-rat, distin- 
guished in counsel, or illustrious councillor. But conf. the 
Gothic hugur, animus ; Schulze's hugs= VQVQ ; and Ihre's 
hog, altus ; hog, hug, mens ; and drott, dominus. 

UGHTRED, A corruption of the more ancient name 

UILEMHIN. The Gaelic form of Wilhelmina. 

UILLE AM. The Gaelic form of William. 

UISDEAN. The Gaelic form of Eugene. 

ULUNDI. A name given to a female child shortly 
after the battle of Ulundi, at which the child's uncle had 
been present. Conf. N. Q. 6th S. iv. 77. 

ULYSSES. Found as a male baptismal name. The 
Latin form of the Greek name 'O<W(Ti,V> formed from the 
obsolete verb oyo;, to cause pain, on account of the pain 
suffered at his birth. Littleton says Ulysses was so called 
'quod eum mater peperit in triviis.' 

UNA. A Gaelic female name, corrupted down from 
Winifred. Conf. Winny. 


UNGUS. Another spelling of Angus. 

URANIA. A female name derived from Urania, one of 
the Muses ; also n name of Venus, signifying celestial. 

I'lJBAN. A name derived from L. urbanus, signifying 
civil, courteous, polite, refined ; lit. of or belonging to a 
city (r/>v). 

URIAH. The Scripture name, in II. rrriN, Uriyyah ; 
from ur- Yah, light of Jehovah. 

URSULA. A female name derived from L. Ursula, a 
young or small slu'-ln-nr. In Inscrip. ap. Gruter it occurs 
imes as a woman's name. Ursula was the name of 
the virgin saint martyred under Attila, King of the Huns. 

ITIIKM. I'TIIYR. A Welsh name derived from uthr, 
signifying awful, wonderful, astonishing, terrific, horrible. 

Y cythraul acw uthr-was 
[The fiend yonder a horrid sprite.] 


UZZIAH. Found as a male name. The Scripture 
name, in H. my, Uzziyyah, from oz-7ah, strength of 


VAL. A male name abbreviated from Valentine. 

VALENTINE. A name derived from St. Valentine, 
from L. Valentinus, of or belonging to Valentia, one of the 
ancient names of Rome ; also of towns in Spain, Italy, 
and Sardinia, and the appellation of a goddess wor- 
shipped at Ocriculum in Italy ; or from valens, puissant, 
mighty, strong. The nickname is Val. 


VALLANTINA. A female name derived from Valen- 

VANS. An abbreviation of Evans. See EVAN. 

VASHTI. Found as a female baptismal name, so called 
from Vashti, wife of Ahasuerus, t. e. Xerxes (Esther, ch. i.), 
in H. written TiUfl, Vashtiy, Persian ^-*-^ Vashti, 
signifying beauty, goodness. 

VAUGHAN. The English form of the old Welsh name 
Vychan, q. v. 

VENETIA. A female name derived from Venetia, . . 
Venice, or the Venetian Kingdom ; or perhaps rather 
Latinised from the Welsh name Gwynaeth. 

VENUS. A female name. Some think it may have 
been corrupted from Silvanus, and it is certainly found as a 
male name. It is more probably named after the goddess, 
or from the city of Venice. The lower orders call Venice 
turpentine Venus's turpentine. 

VERE. A female name ; and in Ireland found as a male 
name. Derived, by change of on to v, from the Erse eamhar, 
protection. The Gaelic form of the name is Eamhair. 

VICTORIA. (L.) Victory. 

VI DA. A female name derived from David. 

VINCENT. From the Latin name Vincentius, from 
vincere, to conquer. The nickname is Vin. 

VIOLA. A female name derived from L. viola, a 

VIOLANTE. A female name derived from the name 
Violet. Other forms are Yolante, Yoland, lolantha, lolent. 
Yolante and Yoland are also found as French names. 

VIOLET. A female name derived from Fr. violette, 
from L. viola. 


VIOLETTA. A female diminutive of the name Violet; 
or direct from It. violetta. 

VIRGILL. Found as a baptismal name prior to 1650. 
Derived, like the surname Vergil, from the bard of Mantua. 
Angelus Politianus writes the poet's name Vergilius ; 
Pierius, Virgilius ; Suidas, in Greek O'ye^y/Afoe ; Stephanus, 
in the Mantua diction, fiipyiXioq. The name has been 
variously derived from Vergilise, the stars called the 
Pleiades ; from virga, a garland of laurel ; and virga 
populea, ' quse post ejus ortum more gentis humi defixa est.' 

VIRGINIA. The Roman name, a feminine of Virgiiiius, 
from root of Virgo, q. v. 

VIRGO. Found as a male baptismal name. Named 
after the Virgin Mary ; or from L. virgo, a chaste person, 
male as well as female. 

VIVIAN, VYVIAN. A Cornish name derived from 
locality, from vy-vian, the small water. See Char nock's 
Patronymica Cornu-Britanuica. 

VITAL. An old name derived from L. vitalis, of life, 
lively, life-giving, life-preserving. 

VYCHAN. A Welsh name of great antiquity, from 
vyckan, little, small ; i. e. small in stature. Conf. the 
surname Bychan and the Armoric Le Bihan. 



WALTER. Some derive this name from G. wald-her, 
the lord or master of a wood ; Wachter translates it ' nego- 
tiorium gestor,' a transactor of business j from wait, 


administer rei private, presertim aliense, a manager of 
private business, especially that of another. It is more 
probably from wait -her, powerful lord. 

WALWYN. An old name derived A. S. wait-wine, 
powerful friend. It is found Latinised Wolganus. 

WARIN. An old name. The same as Waring or 
Guerin, who came over with the Conqueror ; a name 
probably connected with that of the Waernas or Wernas. 
the Varini or Verini, a people of the Elbe ; perhaps from 
A. S. waring, wering, a heap, mound, rampart (agger), from 
wcerian, werian, defendere, protegere, tueri, munire. 

WEALTHY. Found as a female as well as a male 
baptismal name. Conf. Shua, signifying wealth, the pr. u. 
of a man, Gen. xxxviii. 2 ; and of a woman, I. Chron. 
vii. 32. 

WENEFREDE. Same as Winefred. 

WIBERT. Some derive this name from A. S. wi holy, 
bert bright, shining. It comes rather from O. G. wig-bert, 
distinguished warrior. 

WILDRED. This name is said to be a Saxon compound 
signifying 'much fear,' which is absurd. It comes from 0. G. 
viel-draut, much beloved or very faithful. 

WILFRED, WILFRID. This name has been trans- 
lated 'much peace' or 'resolute peace.' But Wilfred, 
found written Wilfrith, is the same as the Old German 
name Willifrid, which Junius translates ' volens pacem vel 
affectuum tranquillitas ; ' but the name is rather from viel- 
frid y powerful protector; fromfrieden, tueri, tutari. 

WILFORD. A name corrupted from Wilfred, q. v. 

WILHELMINA. A female name derived from the 
German name Wilhelmine, from Wilhelm, whence William. 


WILLEMENT. A female name corrupted from Wilmet. 

WILLIAM. A name corrupted from the Old German 
name Wilhelm, Willihelm, which Wachter derives from 
weil-hclm, protector of rest, defender of tranquillity ; I say 
from vil-helm, strong protector. The nicknames are Will, 
Willy, Bill, Billy. Mailliw, which is found as a female name, 
is said to be William spelt backwards. 

WILLIAMINA. A female name corrupted from the 
name Wilhelrnina, or formed from William. 

WILLMET. A female name corrupted from Wilmett. 

WILMENTA. A female name corrupted from Wilmet. 

WILMETT. A diminutive formed from William. 

WILMONT. A female name corrupted from Wilmet. 

WILMOT. A female name in common use at one town 
in North Devon. The same as Wilmet. 

WINDSOR. It appears from the register of Youlgreave, 
co. Derby, for the year 1708, that William and Mary 
Castle caused their son to be baptised Windsor, making the 
curious combination of Windsor Castle. 

WINEFRED. A male name. See WINIFRED. 

WINIFRED. A female name, which some consider a 
Saxon compound signifying * get peace ; ' it comes rather 
from the O. G. win-frid, beloved protector. 

WINNY. An Irish female name, corrupted from Wini- 

WINTER. Found as a baptismal name ; derived from 
the Anglo-Saxon name, rendered somewhat familiar as the 
designation of one of the companions of Hereward the 
Saxon. (See Lower.) Grimm thinks that the name 
Winter is derived from a personification of the season in 
the Northern mythology. 


WISHART. The same with the old name Guiscard, in 
H. R. Wiscard ; from 0. G. wtsa-hart, strong leader. It 
is found Latinised Guiscardus. 

WOLSTAN. An old Saxon name, from ulf-stdn, stone 
of help ; say, powerful help. It is found Latinised Wol- 
stanus, and is also represented by Derentius. 

WYBERN, WYBARN. The ancient personal name, 
in H. R. Wyborn, Wybourn, Wyburn ; from O. G. wig- 
bern, strong man or warrior man ; from wig, var. strong, 
bellicose, soldier, fighter, hero. 

WYBERT. Another spelling of Wibert, q. v. 


XERXES. Found as a baptismal name. The celebrated 
Persian name, in cuneiform written Khshyarsua or Khsh- 
wershe ; from the Persian $ljj -xi> sher-shdh, lion king.- 
The Scriptural name Ahasuerus (Est. i.) is said to be the 
same name with Aleph prefixed. 


YESTIN. An old Welsh form of Justin. 

YNYR. An old Welsh form of Honorius. See HONOR 
et seq. 

YOLAND. A female name. See VIOLANTE. 


YOLETTE. A Scottish form of the female name 
Violet, q. v. 


TOUTY. Found as a female name. It may have been 
corrupted from Judith, or from the German female name 

YTHEL, YTHIL. An old British name. The same 
as Ithel, q. v. It is found Latinised Euthalius. 


ZACCHEUS. Found as a male baptismal name ; from 
ZOLK-^OUOQ, the Greek form of the Scripture name >3T, Zak- 
kay, pure, innocent. Others render it * pure of the Lord,' 
making the last letter stand for Yah. 

ZACHARY. A name derived from the Scripture 
Zachariah, in H rrnrt, Z'kharyah ; from zakhdr- Yah, whom 
Jehovah remembers, remembered of Jehovah. 

ZENOBIA. Found as a female name. Derived from 
Zenobia Queen of Iberia, or Zenobia Queen of Palmyra. 
Some translate this name * life of Jove ; ' from Zijy Jove, and 
/&og. Another derivation might be from tyoc a stranger, 
foreigner, guest, and /3<oc life ; and, curiously enough, this 
latter would agree with the lives of both these celebrated 

ZOE. From the Greek name Zunj, signifying ' life.' 

" ZCCTJ ju/ou act 

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